How to format your references using the Security Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Security Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boyd RW (2008) Physics. Let quantum mechanics improve your images. Science 321:501–502
A journal article with 2 authors
Richerson PJ, Boyd R (2008) Migration: an engine for social change. Nature 456:877
A journal article with 3 authors
Pepe F, Ehrenreich D, Meyer MR (2014) Instrumentation for the detection and characterization of exoplanets. Nature 513:358–366
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Fotin A, Cheng Y, Grigorieff N, et al (2004) Structure of an auxilin-bound clathrin coat and its implications for the mechanism of uncoating. Nature 432:649–653

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hitchner JR (2017) Financial Valuation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ma Z, Marchal P, Scarpazza DP, et al (2007) Systematic Methodology for Real-Time Cost-Effective Mapping of Dynamic Concurrent Task-Based Systems on Heterogeneous Platforms. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Althaus E, Kruglov E, Weidenbach C (2009) Superposition Modulo Linear Arithmetic SUP(LA). In: Ghilardi S, Sebastiani R (eds) Frontiers of Combining Systems: 7th International Symposium, FroCoS 2009, Trento, Italy, September 16-18, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 84–99

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Security Informatics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) 47 Years On, Relive The Apollo 11 Moon Landing Through These Historic Photos. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee: IRAC Representatives Effectively Coordinate Federal Spectrum but Lack Seniority to Advise on Contentious Policy Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rosenfeld EG (2009) The ascent of women to senior leadership positions in the financial services industry: A phenomenological study. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR N (2015) Conspiracy Theories Mix With Somber Condolences. New York Times A11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSecurity Informatics
AbbreviationSecur. Inform.
ISSN (online)2190-8532

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