How to format your references using the Security Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Security Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deweerdt S (2011) Prevention: activity is the best medicine. Nature 475:S16-7
A journal article with 2 authors
Patrinos A, Bamzai A (2005) Policy needs robust climate science. Nature 438:285
A journal article with 3 authors
Hsieh C-S, Kovářík J, Logan T (2014) How central are clients in sexual networks created by commercial sex? Sci Rep 4:7540
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Rout CS, Joshi PD, Kashid RV, et al (2013) Superior field emission properties of layered WS2-RGO nanocomposites. Sci Rep 3:3282

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lueder E (2011) 3D Displays. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Stober T (2010) Agile Software Development: Best Practices for Large Software Development Projects. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Bitner-Gregersen EM, Eide LI, Hørte T, Skjong R (2013) Summary of Past and Future Climate Change. In: Eide LI, Hørte T, Skjong R (eds) Ship and Offshore Structure Design in Climate Change Perspective. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 39–41

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Security Informatics.

Blog post
Hale T (2015) 81 Rare Pangolins Caught Up In The Illegal Wildlife Trade. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Technology: America’s Schools Not Designed or Equipped for 21st Century. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kalinec-Craig C (2012) A case study of four Latina/o pre-service teachers in learning to teach mathematics for understanding and integrate a child’s out-of-school mathematical knowledge and experiences. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B (2016) They’re First-Time Rivals. Their Mothers? Close as Longtime Friends. New York Times D2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSecurity Informatics
AbbreviationSecur. Inform.
ISSN (online)2190-8532

Other styles