How to format your references using the Security Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Security Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ehrlich PR (2010) Retrospective. Stephen Schneider (1945-2010). Science 329:776
A journal article with 2 authors
van Ginneken VJ, van den Thillart GE (2000) Eel fat stores are enough to reach the Sargasso. Nature 403:156–157
A journal article with 3 authors
Head JN, Melosh HJ, Ivanov BA (2002) Martian meteorite launch: high-speed ejecta from small craters. Science 298:1752–1756
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pei ZM, Murata Y, Benning G, et al (2000) Calcium channels activated by hydrogen peroxide mediate abscisic acid signalling in guard cells. Nature 406:731–734

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bobrow J, Fisher S, Mondragon-Gilmore J, et al (2009) CliffsNotes® CSET®. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Luo MR (2016) Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Dall BE, Smith AG (2015) Pathology of the Sacroiliac Joint Leading to Surgery. In: Dall BE, Eden SV, Rahl MD (eds) Surgery for the Painful, Dysfunctional Sacroiliac Joint: A Clinical Guide. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 45–55

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Security Informatics.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Researchers Discover Extra DNA Base. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Federal Communications Commission: International Settlement Rates. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Soma VM (2016) A particle filter methodology for salient object detection in videos. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E (1994) PLAYING IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD. New York Times 139

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSecurity Informatics
AbbreviationSecur. Inform.
ISSN (online)2190-8532

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