How to format your references using the Toxins citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxins. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Javitt, G. Which Way for Genetic-Test Regulation? Assign Regulation Appropriate to the Level of Risk. Nature 2010, 466, 817–818.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gómez, P.; Buckling, A. Bacteria-Phage Antagonistic Coevolution in Soil. Science 2011, 332, 106–109.
A journal article with 3 authors
Humanes-Valera, D.; Foffani, G.; Aguilar, J. Increased Cortical Responses to Forepaw Stimuli Immediately after Peripheral Deafferentation of Hindpaw Inputs. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7278.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Du, J.; Cheng, F.; Wang, S.; Zhang, T.; Chen, J. M(Salen)-Derived Nitrogen-Doped M/C (M = Fe, Co, Ni) Porous Nanocomposites for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4386.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sewell, G. Computational Methods of Linear Algebra; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471742142.
An edited book
Data Warehousing and Knowledge Discovery: 11th International Conference, DaWaK 2009 Linz, Austria, August 31–September 2, 2009 Proceedings; Pedersen, T.B., Mohania, M.K., Tjoa, A.M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; Vol. 5691; ISBN 9783642037290.
A chapter in an edited book
Wilson, D.J.; Allen, G.M. Paediatric Imaging. In Children’s Orthopaedics and Fractures; Benson, M., Fixsen, J., Macnicol, M., Parsch, K., Eds.; Springer: London, 2009; pp. 49–64 ISBN 9781848826106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxins.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Insect Bites Reveal Recovery From Dinosaur Extinction Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology: DOD Needs to Improve Process for Ensuring Interoperability of Telecommunications Switches; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2002;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia-Manglano, J. Working for Pay or Raising a Family? Three Papers on Women’s Work Expectations and Market Outcomes. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Administration Rebuffed On House Office Search. New York Times 2008, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleToxins
AbbreviationToxins (Basel)
ISSN (online)2072-6651
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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