How to format your references using the Toxins citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxins. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Linden, H. Circadian rhythms. A white collar protein senses blue light. Science 2002, 297, 777–778.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schuske, K.; Jorgensen, E.M. Neuroscience. Vesicular glutamate transporter--shooting blanks. Science 2004, 304, 1750–1752.
A journal article with 3 authors
Suma, K.; Sumiyoshi, Y.; Endo, Y. The rotational spectrum of the water-hydroperoxy radical (H2O-HO2) complex. Science 2006, 311, 1278–1281.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bragg, A.E.; Verlet, J.R.R.; Kammrath, A.; Cheshnovsky, O.; Neumark, D.M. Hydrated electron dynamics: from clusters to bulk. Science 2004, 306, 669–671.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahmad, K. Sourcebook of ATM and IP Internetworking; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471722861.
An edited book
The Dawn Mission to Minor Planets 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres; Russell, C., Raymond, C., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2012; ISBN 9781461449027.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, Y.; Hong, J.; Liu, W.; Godo, L.; Sierra, C.; Loughlin, M. Incorporating PGMs into a BDI Architecture. In PRIMA 2013: Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems: 16th International Conference, Dunedin, New Zealand, December 1-6, 2013. Proceedings; Boella, G., Elkind, E., Savarimuthu, B.T.R., Dignum, F., Purvis, M.K., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 54–69 ISBN 9783642449260.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxins.

Blog post
Taub, B. Vote For Your Favorite In The Wildlife Photographer Of The Year People’s Choice Award Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Options to Enhance the Long-term Viability of the Essential Air Service Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2002;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beechey, S.N. The politics of deservingness: Discourses of gender, race, *class, and age in the 2005 Social Security debates. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. A Decision on a Convicted Killer Looses a Rush of Musical Memories. New York Times 2000, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleToxins
AbbreviationToxins (Basel)
ISSN (online)2072-6651
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Other styles