How to format your references using the Toxins citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxins. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ellis, J. Higgs Boson: The Need for New Physics. Nature 2012, 481, 24.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilberg, M.J.; Miller, T.J. Comment on “Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services.” Science 2007, 316, 1285; author reply 1285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boyce, D.G.; Lewis, M.R.; Worm, B. Global Phytoplankton Decline over the Past Century. Nature 2010, 466, 591–596.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dermitzakis, E.T.; Reymond, A.; Scamuffa, N.; Ucla, C.; Kirkness, E.; Rossier, C.; Antonarakis, S.E. Evolutionary Discrimination of Mammalian Conserved Non-Genic Sequences (CNGs). Science 2003, 302, 1033–1035.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joseph, G. Doing Physics with Scientific Notebook; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781119941576.
An edited book
Advancement in Sensing Technology: New Developments and Practical Applications; Mukhopadhyay, S.C., Jayasundera, K.P., Fuchs, A., Eds.; Smart Sensors, Measurement and Instrumentation; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; Vol. 1; ISBN 9783642321795.
A chapter in an edited book
Marin, M.; Hull, R.; Vaculín, R. Data Centric BPM and the Emerging Case Management Standard: A Short Survey. In Business Process Management Workshops: BPM 2012 International Workshops, Tallinn, Estonia, September 3, 2012. Revised Papers; Rosa, M.L., Soffer, P., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 24–30 ISBN 9783642362842.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxins.

Blog post
Rivett, J. Stephen Hawking Has Another Dire Warning For Humanity Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office VA Information Technology: Progress Made, but Continued Management Attention Is Key to Achieving Results; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2002;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hong, A.N. A Diastereomeric Strategy in the Construction of Homochiral Metal-Organic Architectures. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. JonBenet Ramsey Case to Again Haunt TV. New York Times 2016, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleToxins
AbbreviationToxins (Basel)
ISSN (online)2072-6651
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Other styles