How to format your references using the Toxins citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxins. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pain, E. Science careers. European programs offer translational training. Science 2007, 317, 968–969.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brunauer, R.; Kennedy, B.K. Medicine. Progeria accelerates adult stem cell aging. Science 2015, 348, 1093–1094.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang, D.; Zhao, L.; Clapham, D.E. Genome-wide RNAi screen identifies Letm1 as a mitochondrial Ca2+/H+ antiporter. Science 2009, 326, 144–147.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bakan, G.; Khan, N.; Silva, H.; Gokirmak, A. High-temperature thermoelectric transport at small scales: thermal generation, transport and recombination of minority carriers. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2724.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lane, M.J. The Mission-Driven Venture; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781118809815.
An edited book
ISSE 2009 Securing Electronic Business Processes: Highlights of the Information Security Solutions Europe 2009 Conference; Pohlmann, N., Reimer, H., Schneider, W., Eds.; Vieweg+Teubner: Wiesbaden, 2010; ISBN 9783834809582.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, G.L.; Chang, C.C.; Chien, S.C.; Tung, T.S.; Lee, H.H.; Ling, W.C.; Lee, H.L. Plasma-Ion Enhanced Optical Multilayer Thin-Film Coating for Consumer Electronics Products. In Proceedings of the 35th International MATADOR Conference: Formerly The International Machine Tool Design and Research Conference; Hinduja, S., Fan, K.-C., Eds.; Springer: London, 2007; pp. 17–20 ISBN 9781846289873.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxins.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Nigeria Celebrates One Year Without Polio Case (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Land Management Systems: Progress and Risks in Developing BLM’s Land and Mineral Record System; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1995;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lyngarkos, B. Examination of the relative importance of website elements for users of manufacturers representative websites. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University: Scottsdale, AZ, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. ‘Stranger Things’ Will Return in 2017. New York Times 2016, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleToxins
AbbreviationToxins (Basel)
ISSN (online)2072-6651
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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