How to format your references using the Toxins citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxins. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savchenko, A. Materials Science. Transforming Graphene. Science 2009, 323, 589–590.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chirik, P.J.; Wieghardt, K. Chemistry. Radical Ligands Confer Nobility on Base-Metal Catalysts. Science 2010, 327, 794–795.
A journal article with 3 authors
Malmgren, R.D.; Ottino, J.M.; Nunes Amaral, L.A. The Role of Mentorship in Protégé Performance. Nature 2010, 465, 622–626.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, A.; Ren, X.; An, M.; Zhang, J.; Yang, P.; Wang, B.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, C. A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Study for Silver Electroplating. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 3837.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris, S.A. Food and Package Engineering; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781119949794.
An edited book
The Contribution of Social Sciences to Sustainable Development at Universities; Leal Filho, W., Zint, M., Eds.; World Sustainability Series; 1st ed. 2016.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319268644.
A chapter in an edited book
Goolsby, R. The DoD Encounters the Blogosphere. In Social Computing, Behavioral Modeling, and Prediction; Liu, H., Salerno, J.J., Young, M.J., Eds.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2008; pp. 25–25 ISBN 9780387776712.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxins.

Blog post
Hale, T. Beautiful And Terrifying Time-Lapse Shows Antibiotic Resistance In Action Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office The National Direct Student Loan Program Requires More Attention by the Office of Education and Participating Institutions; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1977;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schroder, G.L. A Quantitative Study of Critical Thinking Skills in Bachelors of Science Nursing Program Students. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J. The Last Days for the Circus. New York Times 2016, MB8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleToxins
AbbreviationToxins (Basel)
ISSN (online)2072-6651
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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