How to format your references using the Toxins citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxins. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Judson, H.F. Talking about the Genome. Nature 2001, 409, 769.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simonson, A.B.; Lake, J.A. The Transorientation Hypothesis for Codon Recognition during Protein Synthesis. Nature 2002, 416, 281–285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kobayashi, K.; Yoshimura, J.; Hasegawa, E. Coexistence of Sexual Individuals and Genetically Isolated Asexual Counterparts in a Thrips. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3286.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, Y.; Bor, Y.-C.; Misawa, Y.; Xue, Y.; Rekosh, D.; Hammarskjöld, M.-L. An Intron with a Constitutive Transport Element Is Retained in a Tap Messenger RNA. Nature 2006, 443, 234–237.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Demand, N.H. The Mediterranean Context of Early Greek History; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781444342369.
An edited book
Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology: Application and Evaluation of Pathogens for Control of Insects and Other Invertebrate Pests; Lacey, L.A., Kaya, H.K., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2007; ISBN 9781402059315.
A chapter in an edited book
Frisch, W.; Meschede, M.; Blakey, R. Mid-Ocean Ridges. In Plate Tectonics: Continental Drift and Mountain Building; Meschede, M., Blakey, R.C., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; pp. 59–74 ISBN 9783540765035.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxins.

Blog post
Andrew, D. What Does a Nuclear Explosion in Space Look Like? Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Safety: Commuter Airports Should Participate in the Airport Certification Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1987;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Larson, S.E. A Case of Rational Irrationality: Evidence of Expressive Interest Bias in State e-Commerce Sales and Use Tax Legislation. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. In One Brief Moment, Rangers Finally Win Playoff Game at Home. New York Times 2017, B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleToxins
AbbreviationToxins (Basel)
ISSN (online)2072-6651
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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