How to format your references using the Biological Trace Element Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Trace Element Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zhuang X (2004) Molecular biology. Unraveling DNA condensation with optical tweezers. Science 305:188–190
A journal article with 2 authors
Artursson P, Knight SD (2015) Structural biology. Breaking the intestinal barrier to deliver drugs. Science 347:716–717
A journal article with 3 authors
Adachi MM, Anantram MP, Karim KS (2013) Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells. Sci Rep 3:1546
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wang J-W, Howson JM, Ghansah T, et al (2002) Influence of SHIP on the NK repertoire and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Science 295:2094–2097

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooney KA, Chappell JR, Callan RJ, Connally BA (2012) Veterinary Euthanasia Techniques. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Fan Y, Fisher G (2012) Solar Flare Magnetic Fields and Plasmas. Springer US, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Bartnik R, Buryn Z (2011) Testing Calculations of the Mathematical Model of a Power Unit. In: Buryn Z (ed) Conversion of Coal-Fired Power Plants to Cogeneration and Combined-Cycle: Thermal and Economic Effectiveness. Springer, London, pp 69–78

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Trace Element Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) What It’s Like To Fly Around The World On Nothing But Solar Power. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981) Implementing a Data Handling Policy for Space Science Flight Investigations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Norton JC (2013) Elementary ESL and General Education Co-Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Co-Teaching Roles: A Mixed Methods Study. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Clarey C (2017) French Open Refuses To Admit Sharapova. New York Times B10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Trace Element Research
AbbreviationBiol. Trace Elem. Res.
ISSN (print)0163-4984
ISSN (online)1559-0720
Clinical Biochemistry
Inorganic Chemistry
General Medicine
Biochemistry, medical
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Other styles