How to format your references using the Biological Trace Element Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Trace Element Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schleich WP (2000) Engineering decoherence. Nature 403:256–257
A journal article with 2 authors
Bozic I, Nowak MA (2013) Cancer. Unwanted evolution. Science 342:938–939
A journal article with 3 authors
Miyagoshi T, Kageyama A, Sato T (2010) Zonal flow formation in the Earth’s core. Nature 463:793–796
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Osama A, Najam A, Kassim-Lakha S, et al (2009) Pakistan’s reform experiment. Nature 461:38–39

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sundar V (2015) Ocean Wave Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Macfarlane PW, van Oosterom A, Pahlm O, et al (2010) Comprehensive Electrocardiology, 2nd ed. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Stankovic S, Stankovic AR (2013) Bioindicators of Toxic Metals. In: Lichtfouse E, Schwarzbauer J, Robert D (eds) Green Materials for Energy, Products and Depollution. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 151–228

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Trace Element Research.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Cutting-Edge Technology Aiding Development Of Novel Synthetic Polio Vaccine. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Embedded Computer Systems: Software Development Problems Delay the Army’s Fire Direction Data Manager. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Denny HM (2012) Impact of Occupational Health Interventions in Indonesia. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2010) Local, Fresh and in Season. New York Times NJ12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Trace Element Research
AbbreviationBiol. Trace Elem. Res.
ISSN (print)0163-4984
ISSN (online)1559-0720
Clinical Biochemistry
Inorganic Chemistry
General Medicine
Biochemistry, medical
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Other styles