How to format your references using the Biological Trace Element Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biological Trace Element Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Amaravadi RK (2011) Cancer. Autophagy in tumor immunity. Science 334:1501–1502
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Ahmed S, Hodgkin J (2000) MRT-2 checkpoint protein is required for germline immortality and telomere replication in C. elegans. Nature 403:159–164
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Rohani P, Zhong X, King AA (2010) Contact network structure explains the changing epidemiology of pertussis. Science 330:982–985
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Yang Z-C, Tang C-H, Zhang Y, et al (2013) Cobalt monoxide-doped porous graphitic carbon microspheres for supercapacitor application. Sci Rep 3:2925

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Parashar RK (2008) Reaction Mechanisms in Organic Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., West Sussex, United Kingdom
An edited book
1.
Kwon T, Lee M-K, Kwon D (2013) Information Security and Cryptology – ICISC 2012: 15th International Conference, Seoul, Korea, November 28-30, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Graepel R, Bodkin JV, Brain SD (2010) Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and the Sensory Neurovascular Component. In: Sauer H, Shah AM, Laurindo FRM (eds) Studies on Cardiovascular Disorders. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 87–107

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biological Trace Element Research.

Blog post
1.
Taub B (2016) Learning Music Gives Kids Extra Brain Connections. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/brain/learning-music-gives-kids-extra-brain-connections/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2004) Student Mentoring Programs: Education’s Monitoring and Information Sharing Could Be Improved. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Martinez AM (2010) Moving in foster care: Voices of adults who experienced multiple foster care placements in childhood. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Isherwood C (2016) Old Friends, Sifting Grief at a Reunion. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiological Trace Element Research
AbbreviationBiol. Trace Elem. Res.
ISSN (print)0163-4984
ISSN (online)1559-0720
ScopeBiochemistry
Clinical Biochemistry
Inorganic Chemistry
General Medicine
Biochemistry, medical
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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