How to format your references using the European Surgical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Surgical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Marquet PA. Ecology. Of predators, prey, and power laws. Science. 2002 Mar;295(5563):2229–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Hajkova P, Surani MA. Development. Programming the X chromosome. Science. 2004 Jan;303(5658):633–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Gonsamo A, Chen JM, Wu C. Citizen Science: linking the recent rapid advances of plant flowering in Canada with climate variability. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2239.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Fialko Y, Sandwell D, Simons M, Rosen P. Three-dimensional deformation caused by the Bam, Iran, earthquake and the origin of shallow slip deficit. Nature. 2005 May;435(7040):295–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Otto M. Chemometrics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2016.
An edited book
1
Neri E, Caramella D, Bartolozzi C, editors. Image Processing in Radiology: Current Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Porta C, Kumar BS, Larghi P, Rubino L, Mancino A, Sica A. Tumor Promotion by Tumor-Associated Macrophages. In: Fagagna FD di, Chiocca S, McBlane F, Cavallaro U, editors. Advances in Molecular Oncology: Edited under the auspices of the European Institute of Oncology (IEO) and The FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology Foundation (IFOM). Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007; pp 67–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Surgical Research.

Blog post
1
Andrew D. Here’s What Happens When You Shine A Laser On The Blackest Material Ever Made [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Oct [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/technology/heres-what-happens-when-you-shine-a-laser-on-the-blackest-material-ever-made/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Highway Safety Research and Development--Better Management Can Make It More Useful. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Wick HF. Applying Natural Horn Technique to Modern Valved Horn Performance Practice. 2001

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Solomon BC, Villamor F. In a City of Ruins, the Philippines’ Fierce Battle With ISIS Rages On. New York Times. 2017 Sep;A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Surgical Research
AbbreviationEur. Surg. Res.
ISSN (print)0014-312X
ISSN (online)1421-9921
ScopeSurgery

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