How to format your references using the European Surgical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Surgical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brenner SE: Common sense for our genomes. Nature 2007;449:783–784.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ratajczak Z, Nippert JB: Comment on “Global resilience of tropical forest and savanna to critical transitions.” Science 2012;336:541; author reply 541.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ding WW, Murray F, Stuart TE: Gender differences in patenting in the academic life sciences. Science 2006;313:665–667.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Brook BW, O’Grady JJ, Chapman AP, Burgman MA, Akçakaya HR, Frankham R: Predictive accuracy of population viability analysis in conservation biology. Nature 2000;404:385–387.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Warren AEA, Lerner RM, Phelps E: Thriving and Spirituality Among Youth. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
Zhou J, Salvendy G (eds): Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population. Healthy and Active Aging: Second International Conference, ITAP 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016 Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17–22, 2016, Proceedings, Part II. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Lewis-Jones S: Dry Skin in Childhood and the Misery of Eczema and Its Treatments; in Lodén M, Maibach HI (eds): Treatment of Dry Skin Syndrome: The Art and Science of Moisturizers. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2012, pp 41–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Surgical Research.

Blog post
Andrew E: New Images Provide Strongest Evidence So Far For Liquid Water On Mars. IFLScience 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Intellectual Property: Patent Office Should Define Quality, Reassess Incentives, and Improve Clarity. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weissflug KG: Effects of Positive Behavior Support Programs on Student Behaviors 2009;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K: Charleston Chews And Sugar Babies: Fistfuls of Nostalgia. New York Times 2010;NJ11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Surgical Research
AbbreviationEur. Surg. Res.
ISSN (print)0014-312X
ISSN (online)1421-9921

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