How to format your references using the European Surgical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Surgical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Schilling G. Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A hundred million points of light. Nature. 2000 Oct;407(6804):557.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Jetz W, Rahbek C. Geographic range size and determinants of avian species richness. Science. 2002 Aug;297(5586):1548–51.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Dunham EM, Favreau P, Carlson JM. A supershear transition mechanism for cracks. Science. 2003 Mar;299(5612):1557–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Ek M, Engblom D, Saha S, Blomqvist A, Jakobsson PJ, Ericsson-Dahlstrand A. Inflammatory response: pathway across the blood-brain barrier. Nature. 2001 Mar;410(6827):430–1.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
French BA. Chronicles Through the Centuries. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1
Mancas M, Ferrera VP, Riche N, Taylor JG, editors. From Human Attention to Computational Attention: A Multidisciplinary Approach. New York, NY: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Hedin G. An Introductory Tutorial on JastAdd Attribute Grammars. In: Fernandes JM, Lämmel R, Visser J, Saraiva J, editors. Generative and Transformational Techniques in Software Engineering III: International Summer School, GTTSE 2009, Braga, Portugal, July 6-11, 2009. Revised Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011; pp 166–200.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Surgical Research.

Blog post
1
Andrews R. Hunter Killed After Shot Elephant Falls Over And Crushes Him [Internet]. IFLScience. 2017 May [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/hunter-killed-after-shot-elephant-falls-over-and-crushes-him/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Multiple Launch Rocket System: Range Less Than Needed and Sustained Rocket Production Not Ensured. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Biller JT. Cyber-Terrorism: Finding a Common Starting Point. 2012

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Saslow L. Loop Drawbridge to Try Car-Friendly Schedule. New York Times. 2006 Apr;14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Surgical Research
AbbreviationEur. Surg. Res.
ISSN (print)0014-312X
ISSN (online)1421-9921
ScopeSurgery

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