How to format your references using the European Surgical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Surgical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Binney JJ. Astronomy. Triangulating the galaxy. Science. 2006 Jan;311(5757):44–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones JM, Widmann M. Atmospheric science: early peak in Antarctic oscillation index. Nature. 2004 Nov;432(7015):290–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ishii H, Sakurai Y, Maruyama T. Effect of soccer shoe upper on ball behaviour in curve kicks. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug;4:6067.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jehl X, Sanquer M, Calemczuk R, Mailly D. Detection of doubled shot noise in short normal-metal/superconductor junctions. Nature. 2000 May;405(6782):50–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ibe EH. Terrestrial Radiation Effects in ULSI Devices and Electronic Systems. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Dèbes P, Emsalem M, Romagny M, Uludağ AM, editors. Arithmetic and Geometry Around Galois Theory. Basel: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Fischer H, Nebe K, Klompmaker F. A Holistic Model for Integrating Usability Engineering and Software Engineering Enriched with Marketing Activities. In: Kurosu M, editor. Human Centered Design: Second International Conference, HCD 2011, Held as Part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011; pp 28–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Surgical Research.

Blog post
Davis J. White House set to Lift Restrictions on Marijuana Research [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Jun


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Encountering Problems in Acquiring Major Automated Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maafi N. Assessment of Volatile Metabolites for In Situ Detection of Fungal Decay of Wood. 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. The Revolution Will Be Filmed. New York Times. 2017 Jun;C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Surgical Research
AbbreviationEur. Surg. Res.
ISSN (print)0014-312X
ISSN (online)1421-9921

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