How to format your references using the Computer Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. Ganz, Immunology. Versatile defensins, Science. 298 (2002) 977–979.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Volz, A. Rauschenbeutel, Applied physics. Triggering an optical transistor with one photon, Science. 341 (2013) 725–726.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Navarro-González, C.P. McKay, D.N. Mvondo, A possible nitrogen crisis for Archaean life due to reduced nitrogen fixation by lightning, Nature. 412 (2001) 61–64.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
O. Mandelboim, N. Lieberman, M. Lev, L. Paul, T.I. Arnon, Y. Bushkin, D.M. Davis, J.L. Strominger, J.W. Yewdell, A. Porgador, Recognition of haemagglutinins on virus-infected cells by NKp46 activates lysis by human NK cells, Nature. 409 (2001) 1055–1060.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M.J. Zwecher, Retirement Portfolios Workbook, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
C.C. Voigt, T. Kingston, eds., Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World, 1st ed. 2016, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Kakizuka, VCP, a Major ATPase in the Cells, as a Novel Drug Target for Currently Incurable Disorders, in: K. Nakao, N. Minato, S. Uemoto (Eds.), Innovative Medicine: Basic Research and Development, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2015: pp. 61–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Communications.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, Track Near-Earth Objects On Asteroid Day 2016, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Security: Improvement still Needed in Federal Aviation Security Efforts, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P.J. Wuebbels, Effectiveness of Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum on Middle School Reading Comprehension and Preparation for Common Core State Standards, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
The following scouting report on the Oakland Athletics was prepared by Tom Kelly, The Manager of The, with the editorial assistance of Michael Martinez, This Team Flattens Opponents, New York Times. (1988) D17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Communications
AbbreviationComput. Commun.
ISSN (print)0140-3664
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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