How to format your references using the Computer Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Chenn, Eppendorf & Science Prize. Essays on science and society. Making a bigger brain by regulating cell cycle exit, Science. 298 (2002) 766–767.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.G. Martin, M. Berthelot-Grosjean, Polar gradients of the DYRK-family kinase Pom1 couple cell length with the cell cycle, Nature. 459 (2009) 852–856.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Ebel, L. Mariconti, W. Gruissem, Plant retinoblastoma homologues control nuclear proliferation in the female gametophyte, Nature. 429 (2004) 776–780.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Huang, X. Duan, Q. Wei, C.M. Lieber, Directed assembly of one-dimensional nanostructures into functional networks, Science. 291 (2001) 630–633.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.A. Schwartz, M.G. Carew, T. Maksimenko, Micro Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
R. Denk, General Parabolic Mixed Order Systems in Lp and Applications, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Boadu, Ethical Dimensions of Corporate Governance Practice in Ghana: Developing a Theoretical Perspective, in: K.E. Howell, M.K. Sorour (Eds.), Corporate Governance in Africa: Assessing Implementation and Ethical Perspectives, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016: pp. 97–130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Communications.

Blog post
E. Andrew, How Magic Mushrooms Change Your Brain, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Safety: FAA’s Safety Oversight System Is Effective but Could Benefit from Better Evaluation of Its Programs’ Performance, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Mark, A peer mentorship program for youth transitioning out of foster care: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, A Glimpse of Vaudeville In a Renovated Movie House, New York Times. (2002) 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Communications
AbbreviationComput. Commun.
ISSN (print)0140-3664
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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