How to format your references using the Toxics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marais, R. RETROSPECTIVE. Christopher Marshall (1949-2015). Science 2015, 350, 1040.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ehrenfreund, P.; Foing, B. Astrochemistry: Fullerene solves an interstellar puzzle. Nature 2015, 523, 296–297.
A journal article with 3 authors
Planutis, K.; Planutiene, M.; Holcombe, R.F. A novel signaling pathway regulates colon cancer angiogenesis through Norrin. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5630.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhuang, Z.; Frerich, J.M.; Huntoon, K.; Yang, C.; Merrill, M.J.; Abdullaev, Z.; Pack, S.D.; Shively, S.B.; Stamp, G.; Lonser, R.R. Tumor derived vasculogenesis in von Hippel-Lindau disease-associated tumors. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghosh, A.; Berg, S. Arrow Pushing in Inorganic Chemistry; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014; ISBN 9781118924525.
An edited book
Security and Privacy in Communication Networks: 11th EAI International Conference, SecureComm 2015, Dallas, TX, USA, October 26-29, 2015, Proceedings; Thuraisingham, B., Wang, X., Yegneswaran, V., Eds.; Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering; 1st ed. 2015.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 164; ISBN 9783319288642.
A chapter in an edited book
Lowder, K. Fears. In Student Teaching: A Journey in Narratives; Fasching-Varner, K.J., Eisworth, H.B., Mencer, T.H., Lindbom-Cho, D.R., Murray, M.C., Morton, B.C., Eds.; SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2013; pp. 37–56 ISBN 9789462094888.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxics.

Blog post
Andrew, D. A Nevada Woman Died From A Bug That Resisted 26 Antibiotics — Here’s Why It’s So Hard To Develop New Ones (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office NIH Biomedical Research Support Grant Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1980;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mayorga, J. MSW students’ perception of mental health competence. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D. Some Bad Role Models. New York Times 1994, 718.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleToxics
ISSN (online)2305-6304

Other styles