How to format your references using the Toxics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Montgomery, S.L. Newton in Japan. Nature 2001, 411, 25.
A journal article with 2 authors
Doubleday, R.; Wilsdon, J. Science Policy: Beyond the Great and Good. Nature 2012, 485, 301–302.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stott, P.A.; Stone, D.A.; Allen, M.R. Human Contribution to the European Heatwave of 2003. Nature 2004, 432, 610–614.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mysterud, A.; Stenseth, N.C.; Yoccoz, N.G.; Langvatn, R.; Steinheim, G. Nonlinear Effects of Large-Scale Climatic Variability on Wild and Domestic Herbivores. Nature 2001, 410, 1096–1099.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Howe, T.R. Marriages & Families in the 21st Century; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781444344714.
An edited book
Information Security and Cryptology – ICISC 2008: 11th International Conference, Seoul, Korea, December 3-5, 2008, Revised Selected Papers; Lee, P.J., Cheon, J.H., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; Vol. 5461; ISBN 9783642007293.
A chapter in an edited book
Hamby, S.; Grych, J. Implications for Research: Toward a More Comprehensive Understanding of Interpersonal Violence. In The Web of Violence: Exploring Connections Among Different Forms of Interpersonal Violence and Abuse; Grych, J., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Sociology; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2013; pp. 67–79 ISBN 9789400755956.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxics.

Blog post
Davis, J. Copying Rabies Could Provide A New Way To Treat Brain Cancer (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Rail Transportation: Federal Railroad Administration’s New Approach to Railroad Safety; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Belflower, K.E. The Relationship between Demographic and Employment Variables of Job Satisfaction among Emergency Nurses. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. One Book, One City. New York Times 2017, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleToxics
ISSN (online)2305-6304

Other styles