How to format your references using the Toxics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mirkin, S.M. DNA replication: driving past four-stranded snags. Nature 2013, 497, 449–450.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meguro, A.; Sato, Y. Salicylic acid antagonizes abscisic acid inhibition of shoot growth and cell cycle progression in rice. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4555.
A journal article with 3 authors
McGuire, S.E.; Le, P.T.; Davis, R.L. The role of Drosophila mushroom body signaling in olfactory memory. Science 2001, 293, 1330–1333.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pedersen, I.M.; Cheng, G.; Wieland, S.; Volinia, S.; Croce, C.M.; Chisari, F.V.; David, M. Interferon modulation of cellular microRNAs as an antiviral mechanism. Nature 2007, 449, 919–922.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gable, J.; Herrmann, T. Counselling Skills for Dietitians; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2016; ISBN 9781119173953.
An edited book
Integrated Reporting: A New Accounting Disclosure; Mio, C., Ed.; Palgrave Macmillan UK: London, 2016; ISBN 9781137551481.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim, S.J.; Diamond, B. Endogenous Control of Dendritic Cell Activation by miRNA. In MicroRNAs and Other Non-Coding RNAs in Inflammation; Greene, C.M., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 85–103 ISBN 9783319136882.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxics.

Blog post
Andrew, D. Disney Princesses Reimagined As Dinosaurs (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Improvement of Certain Management Areas; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1978;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ayvaz, M.D. Generating Creativity in Teams: An Exploratory Case Study. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M.; Walsh, M.W. Unions Fight Scranton Mayor After He Cuts Pay to Minimum Wage. New York Times 2012, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleToxics
ISSN (online)2305-6304

Other styles