How to format your references using the Toxics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, J. A Long Shadow over Fukushima. Nature 2011, 472, 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hemmer, P.; Gomes, C. Physics. Single Proteins under a Diamond Spotlight. Science 2015, 347, 1072–1073.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, H.K.; Hanson, G.W.; Geller, D.A. Chemistry. Are Gold Clusters in RF Fields Hot or Not? Science 2013, 340, 441–442.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cheng, S.-H.; Weng, T.-M.; Lu, M.-L.; Tan, W.-C.; Chen, J.-Y.; Chen, Y.-F. All Carbon-Based Photodetectors: An Eminent Integration of Graphite Quantum Dots and Two Dimensional Graphene. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2694.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lißner, K.; Rug, W. Der Eurocode 5 Für Deutschland Eurocode 5: Bemessung Und Konstruktion von Holzbauten; Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG: Berlin, Germany, 2016; ISBN 9783433604755.
An edited book
Applied Statistics Using SPSS, STATISTICA, MATLAB and R; Marques de Sá, J.P., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; ISBN 9783540719717.
A chapter in an edited book
Bishop, C. Domestic Violence: The Limitations of a Legal Response. In Domestic Violence: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Protection, Prevention and Intervention; Hilder, S., Bettinson, V., Eds.; Palgrave Macmillan UK: London, 2016; pp. 59–79 ISBN 9781137524515.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Paleontologists Discover Extinct Kitten-Sized Predator Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office [Response to Request for Views on Application of P.L. 99-177 to Teacher Loan Cancellations]; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1986;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hau, C.C. Beliefs of Nurse Practitioner Students toward Testicular Cancer and Teaching Testicular Self-Examinations. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O. Seafood With a Scenic Distraction. New York Times 2013, LI8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleToxics
ISSN (online)2305-6304

Other styles