How to format your references using the Toxics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boebinger, G.S. Physics. An Abnormal Normal State. Science 2009, 323, 590–591.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marchiori, D.; Warglien, M. Predicting Human Interactive Learning by Regret-Driven Neural Networks. Science 2008, 319, 1111–1113.
A journal article with 3 authors
McHenry, C.R.; Cook, A.G.; Wroe, S. Bottom-Feeding Plesiosaurs. Science 2005, 310, 75.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Doronina-Amitonova, L.V.; Fedotov, I.V.; Ivashkina, O.I.; Zots, M.A.; Fedotov, A.B.; Anokhin, K.V.; Zheltikov, A.M. Implantable Fiber-Optic Interface for Parallel Multisite Long-Term Optical Dynamic Brain Interrogation in Freely Moving Mice. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3265.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tadros, T.F. Colloids in Paints; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2010; ISBN 9783527631179.
An edited book
Immunological Mechanisms and Therapies in Brain Injuries and Stroke; Chen, J., Hu, X., Stenzel-Poore, M., Zhang, J.H., Eds.; Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research; Springer: New York, NY, 2014; Vol. 6; ISBN 9781461489146.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosario, T.C.; Dorsey, J.M. Superpowers, Regional Hegemons, Ethno-Nations, and Sectarian States: Identity Politics in Transition Regimes. In Comparative Political Transitions between Southeast Asia and the Middle East and North Africa: Lost in Transition; Dorsey, J.M., Ed.; Palgrave Macmillan US: New York, NY, 2016; pp. 89–122 ISBN 9781137543486.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxics.

Blog post
Fang, J. This Ancient Fish Helps Bridge A Gap In Our Early Evolution, Before Animals Walked on Land Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Early Learning and Child Care: Federal Funds Support Multiple Programs with Similar Goals; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2014;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lieberman, D.S. “Stroke Your Thoroughbreds and Kick Your Donkeys”: Power and the Secondary Administrative Distribution of Teaching Assignments. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L.F. The Legacies They Left. New York Times 2006, 14LI7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleToxics
ISSN (online)2305-6304

Other styles