How to format your references using the Toxics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Desiraju, G.R. In Search of Clarity. Nature 2003, 423, 485.
A journal article with 2 authors
Snook, R.R.; Hosken, D.J. Sperm Death and Dumping in Drosophila. Nature 2004, 428, 939–941.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bintanja, R.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; Oerlemans, J. Modelled Atmospheric Temperatures and Global Sea Levels over the Past Million Years. Nature 2005, 437, 125–128.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tang, J.; Xu, Y.; McKellar, A.R.W.; Jäger, W. Quantum Solvation of Carbonyl Sulfide with Helium Atoms. Science 2002, 297, 2030–2033.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Akivis, M.A.; Goldberg, V.V. Conformal Differential Geometry and Its Generalizations; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 1996; ISBN 9781118032633.
An edited book
PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS IN PLANTS AND BACTERIA; Scháfer, E., Nagy, F., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2006; ISBN 9781402038099.
A chapter in an edited book
Leo, A.; Handjaras, G.; Marino, H.; Bianchi, M.; Pietrini, P.; Ricciardi, E. The Motor Control of Hand Movements in the Human Brain: Toward the Definition of a Cortical Representation of Postural Synergies. In Human and Robot Hands: Sensorimotor Synergies to Bridge the Gap Between Neuroscience and Robotics; Bianchi, M., Moscatelli, A., Eds.; Springer Series on Touch and Haptic Systems; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 41–60 ISBN 9783319267050.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxics.

Blog post
Andrew, D. What Did Neanderthals Sound Like? Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Meeting the Aviation Challenges of the 1990s: Experts Define Key Problems and Identify Emerging Issues; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Runyan, T.E. A Machine Learning Approach to Quantifying Likely Locations of Gas and Gas Hydrate Accumulation. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barry, E. Shaky Economy Dims Russian Prospects. New York Times 2008, A5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleToxics
ISSN (online)2305-6304

Other styles