How to format your references using the Journal of Theoretical Probability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Theoretical Probability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scodeggio, M.: Astronomy. Toward resolving the mystery of galaxy formation. Science. 294, 537–538 (2001)
A journal article with 2 authors
Roman, J., Palumbi, S.R.: Whales before whaling in the North Atlantic. Science. 301, 508–510 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Boyle, W.J., Simonet, W.S., Lacey, D.L.: Osteoclast differentiation and activation. Nature. 423, 337–342 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Galik, K., Senut, B., Pickford, M., Gommery, D., Treil, J., Kuperavage, A.J., Eckhardt, R.B.: External and internal morphology of the BAR 1002’00 Orrorin tugenensis femur. Science. 305, 1450–1453 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rosplock, K.: The Complete Direct Investing Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2017)
An edited book
Gatchel, R.J., Schultz, I.Z. eds: Handbook of Occupational Health and Wellness. Springer US, Boston, MA (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, D., Zhai, J., Zhu, H., Wang, X.: An Improved Approach to Ordinal Classification. In: Wang, X., Pedrycz, W., Chan, P., and He, Q. (eds.) Machine Learning and Cybernetics: 13th International Conference, Lanzhou, China, July 13-16, 2014. Proceedings. pp. 33–42. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Theoretical Probability.

Blog post
Andrews, R.: NASA Wants To Transform The Sun Into A Insanely Powerful Telescope,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: 2020 Census: Prioritized Information Technology Research and Testing Is Needed for Census Design Decisions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2014)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yahil, R.J.: The role of interleukin-19 in interleukin-10 production by regulatory macrophages, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K.: World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Put On A Happy Face, (2004)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Theoretical Probability
AbbreviationJ. Theor. Probab.
ISSN (print)0894-9840
ISSN (online)1572-9230
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
General Mathematics
Statistics and Probability

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