How to format your references using the Journal of Theoretical Probability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Theoretical Probability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A’Hearn, M.F.: The comet no one saw. Nature. 405, 285, 287 (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Cook, E.H., Jr, Scherer, S.W.: Copy-number variations associated with neuropsychiatric conditions. Nature. 455, 919–923 (2008)
A journal article with 3 authors
Gormley, W.T., Jr, Phillips, D., Gayer, T.: The early years. Preschool programs can boost school readiness. Science. 320, 1723–1724 (2008)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Côté, A.P., Benin, A.I., Ockwig, N.W., O’Keeffe, M., Matzger, A.J., Yaghi, O.M.: Porous, crystalline, covalent organic frameworks. Science. 310, 1166–1170 (2005)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dacey, J.S., Mack, M.D., Fiore, L.B.: Your Anxious Child. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2016)
An edited book
Rjasanow, S.: The Fast Solution of Boundary Integral Equations. Springer US, Boston, MA (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Assi, A., García-Sánchez, P.A.: Minimal Presentations. In: García-Sánchez, P.A. (ed.) Numerical Semigroups and Applications. pp. 69–83. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Theoretical Probability.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: Speed Networking: How To Win Euro 2016,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: President’s Fifth Special Message for FY 1983. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1983)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pan, Y.: Long-Term Effects of Higher-Quality Early Childhood Education for At-Risk Children on Their Later Development and Resilience, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Landler, M., Shear, M.D.: Mild in Mideast, but Elbows Are Out in Europe, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Theoretical Probability
AbbreviationJ. Theor. Probab.
ISSN (print)0894-9840
ISSN (online)1572-9230
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
General Mathematics
Statistics and Probability

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