How to format your references using the Journal of Theoretical Probability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Theoretical Probability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Newman, A.V.: Hidden depths. Nature. 474, 441–443 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Sourjik, V., Berg, H.C.: Functional interactions between receptors in bacterial chemotaxis. Nature. 428, 437–441 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Kühlbrandt, W., Zeelen, J., Dietrich, J.: Structure, mechanism, and regulation of the Neurospora plasma membrane H+-ATPase. Science. 297, 1692–1696 (2002)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jones, R.B., Gordus, A., Krall, J.A., MacBeath, G.: A quantitative protein interaction network for the ErbB receptors using protein microarrays. Nature. 439, 168–174 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Santamarina, J.C., Fratta, D.: Discrete Signals and Inverse Problems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2006)
An edited book
Magistris, M.D.: Circuiti: Fondamenti di Circuiti per l’Ingegneria. Springer, Milano (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Bowers, A., Kalton, N.J.: Consequences of Convexity. In: Kalton, N.J. (ed.) An Introductory Course in Functional Analysis. pp. 83–127. Springer, New York, NY (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Theoretical Probability.

Blog post
Hamilton, K.: Gene-Editing Breakthrough Partially Restores Sight To Blind Rats,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Highway Trust Fund: Improved Solvency Mechanisms and Communication Needed to Help Avoid Shortfalls in the Highway Account. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2009)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dillon, K.S.: Social support to families of children with special needs: A grant, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J.C., Jr: Not Guilty, at Least Here, Lawyer Says, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Theoretical Probability
AbbreviationJ. Theor. Probab.
ISSN (print)0894-9840
ISSN (online)1572-9230
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
General Mathematics
Statistics and Probability

Other styles