How to format your references using the Marine Geophysical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine Geophysical Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balter M (2000) SPONGIFORM DISEASE: Experts Downplay New vCJD Fears. Science 289:1663b–6b
A journal article with 2 authors
Sato M, Sievers AJ (2004) Direct observation of the discrete character of intrinsic localized modes in an antiferromagnet. Nature 432:486–488
A journal article with 3 authors
Anderson DM, Overpeck JT, Gupta AK (2002) Increase in the Asian southwest monsoon during the past four centuries. Science 297:596–599
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pahnke K, Zahn R, Elderfield H, Schulz M (2003) 340,000-year centennial-scale marine record of Southern Hemisphere climatic oscillation. Science 301:948–952

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sinclair E (2013) Volatility Trading. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kobayashi T (2016) Conformal Symmetry Breaking Operators for Differential Forms on Spheres. Springer, Singapore
A chapter in an edited book
Saha I, Plewczyński D, Maulik U, Bandyopadhyay S (2010) Consensus Multiobjective Differential Crisp Clustering for Categorical Data Analysis. In: Szczuka M, Kryszkiewicz M, Ramanna S, et al. (eds) Rough Sets and Current Trends in Computing: 7th International Conference, RSCTC 2010, Warsaw, Poland, June 28-30,2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 30–39

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine Geophysical Research.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Researchers Use Robo-Chicks To Study Penguins. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Airline Competition: Options For Addressing Financial and Competition Problems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estep KL (2010) Outreach Communication by Grassroots Environmental Organizations: A Case Study. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Parker A, Sanger DE (2016) Trump Eggs on Moscow in Hack of Clinton Email. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Balter 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Balter 2000; Sato and Sievers 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sato and Sievers 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Pahnke et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine Geophysical Research
AbbreviationMar. Geophys. Res.
ISSN (print)0025-3235
ISSN (online)1573-0581
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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