How to format your references using the Toxicon: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicon: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keszthelyi, L.P., 2011. Planetary science: Europa awakening. Nature 479, 485.
A journal article with 2 authors
Van de Walle, C.G., Neugebauer, J., 2003. Universal alignment of hydrogen levels in semiconductors, insulators and solutions. Nature 423, 626–628.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaul, M., Garden, G.A., Lipton, S.A., 2001. Pathways to neuronal injury and apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia. Nature 410, 988–994.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bernard, C., Anderson, A., Becker, A., Poolos, N.P., Beck, H., Johnston, D., 2004. Acquired dendritic channelopathy in temporal lobe epilepsy. Science 305, 532–535.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kang, S., 2012. Micro/Nano Replication. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Paragios, N., Duncan, J., Ayache, N. (Eds.), 2015. Handbook of Biomedical Imaging: Methodologies and Clinical Research. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Ong, S.T., Chew, F.T., 2010. Reconstructing the Repertoire of Mite Allergens by Recombinant DNA Technology, in: Pawankar, R., Holgate, S.T., Rosenwasser, L.J. (Eds.), Allergy Frontiers: Future Perspectives. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp. 49–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicon: X.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. Scientists Call For A Ban On Microbeads [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Land Management Systems: Actions Needed in Completing the Automated Land and Mineral Record System Development (No. AIMD-98-107). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beasley, C.A., 2010. Investigations of redox-labeled silica and gold nanoparticles in solution and as films on electrodes (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E., 1998. Mascots R Them. New York Times 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Keszthelyi, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Keszthelyi, 2011; Van de Walle and Neugebauer, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Van de Walle and Neugebauer, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Bernard et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicon: X
ISSN (print)2590-1710

Other styles