How to format your references using the Toxicon: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicon: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Venter, J.C., 2011. Genome-sequencing anniversary. The human genome at 10: successes and challenges. Science 331, 546–547.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lehmann, J., Sohi, S., 2008. Comment on “Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus.” Science 321, 1295; author reply 1295.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hashiyama, K., Hayashi, Y., Kobayashi, S., 2011. Drosophila Sex lethal gene initiates female development in germline progenitors. Science 333, 885–888.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Russell, R.J., Haire, L.F., Stevens, D.J., Collins, P.J., Lin, Y.P., Blackburn, G.M., Hay, A.J., Gamblin, S.J., Skehel, J.J., 2006. The structure of H5N1 avian influenza neuraminidase suggests new opportunities for drug design. Nature 443, 45–49.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henry-Labordère, A., 2009. Virtual Roaming Systems for GSM, GPRS and UMTS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Adler, B. (Ed.), 2015. Leptospira and Leptospirosis, Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Zini, G., Tartarini, P., 2012. Wind Energy, in: Tartarini, P. (Ed.), Solar Hydrogen Energy Systems: Science and Technology for the Hydrogen Economy. Springer, Milano, pp. 73–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicon: X.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Fracking Set To Take Place In England For First Time In Five Years [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Federal Research: SEMATECH’s Efforts to Develop and Transfer Manufacturing Technology (No. RCED-91-139FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown, M.L., 2010. Examining leadership and the laminated glass ceiling: Gender and leadership traits (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2009. Grandpa Loved Horses, or How a Filly Got Her Name. New York Times B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Venter, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Lehmann and Sohi, 2008; Venter, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lehmann and Sohi, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Russell et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicon: X
ISSN (print)2590-1710

Other styles