How to format your references using the Pattern Analysis and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pattern Analysis and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Solow AR (2015) CLIMATE CHANGE. Extreme weather, made by us? Science 349:1444–1445
A journal article with 2 authors
Roberts RG, Brook BW (2010) Paleontology. And then there were none? Science 327:420–422
A journal article with 3 authors
Heiling AM, Herberstein ME, Chittka L (2003) Pollinator attraction: Crab-spiders manipulate flower signals. Nature 421:334
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chung W-H, Hung S-I, Hong H-S, et al (2004) Medical genetics: a marker for Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Nature 428:486

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bobrow J, Fisher S, Mondragon-Gilmore J, et al (2009) CliffsNotes® CSET®. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lee DH, Wang X (2011) Advances in Cryptology – ASIACRYPT 2011: 17th International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security, Seoul, South Korea, December 4-8, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Lu MQ, Xie Y, Bai S (2015) Registration. In: Lu MQ (ed) Approaching China’s Pharmaceutical Market: A Fundamental Guide to Clinical Drug Development. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 285–327

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pattern Analysis and Applications.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) A Storm Knocked This Tree Over, And A Skeleton Was Found Hanging From The Roots. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Federal Regulatory Efforts to Ensure Financial Institution Systems Are Year 2000 Compliant. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joshi T (2010) Understanding gold nanoisland formation using transport measurement. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gabler E, Fink S, Yee V (2017) A Preventable Descent Into Suffocating Chaos. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePattern Analysis and Applications
AbbreviationPattern Anal. Appl.
ISSN (print)1433-7541
ISSN (online)1433-755X
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

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