How to format your references using the Pattern Analysis and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pattern Analysis and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Powell K (2005) Getting schooled. Nature 435:850–851
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Xiong W, Ferrell JE Jr (2003) A positive-feedback-based bistable “memory module” that governs a cell fate decision. Nature 426:460–465
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Collins FS, Morgan M, Patrinos A (2003) The Human Genome Project: lessons from large-scale biology. Science 300:286–290
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Lu X, Wu Z, Zhang W, Chen L (2014) Polarization singularities and orbital angular momentum sidebands from rotational symmetry broken by the Pockels effect. Sci Rep 4:4865

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
van Gumster J, Shimonski R (2010) GIMP Bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA
An edited book
1.
Melançon B (2011) The Definitive Guide to Drupal 7. Apress, Berkeley, CA
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Ramtal D, Dobre A (2011) Basic Physics Concepts. In: Dobre A (ed) The Essential Guide to Physics for Flash Games, Animation, and Simulations. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 91–131

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pattern Analysis and Applications.

Blog post
1.
Taub B (2016) How Realistic Is It To Ask Someone To “Cry A River”? In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/how-realistic-it-ask-someone-cry-river/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1993) Army Reserve Officer Education. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Edson C (2017) A Mixed-Methods Investigation on Contributing Factors to the Political Efficacy of Eighth Grade Students in a Suburban School District in Missouri. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Leland J (2016) Black Enclave’s Newcomers: Mr. and Mrs. L.L.C. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePattern Analysis and Applications
AbbreviationPattern Anal. Appl.
ISSN (print)1433-7541
ISSN (online)1433-755X
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

Other styles