How to format your references using the Pattern Analysis and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pattern Analysis and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski D (2002) Marie Curie doesn’t live here, Japanese women say. Nature 419:768
A journal article with 2 authors
Neale MJ, Keeney S (2006) Clarifying the mechanics of DNA strand exchange in meiotic recombination. Nature 442:153–158
A journal article with 3 authors
Lambertucci SA, Shepard ELC, Wilson RP (2015) Ecology. Human-wildlife conflicts in a crowded airspace. Science 348:502–504
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schumacher MA, Glover TC, Brzoska AJ, et al (2007) Segrosome structure revealed by a complex of ParR with centromere DNA. Nature 450:1268–1271

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pepper G, Oliver MJ (2006) The Liquidity Theory of Asset Prices. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Merzkirch W (2005) Fluid Mechanics of Flow Metering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Al-Bataineh O, Reynolds M, French T (2014) Finding Best and Worst Case Execution Times of Systems Using Difference-Bound Matrices. In: Legay A, Bozga M (eds) Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems: 12th International Conference, FORMATS 2014, Florence, Italy, September 8-10, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 38–52

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pattern Analysis and Applications.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Missing “Galactic Dinosaurs” Found Hiding In Plain Sight. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Mass Transit: Issues Related to Providing Dedicated Funding for the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ziegler RT (2017) The Impact of Strategic Planning Involvement on Employee Engagement in a Federal Public Health Agency. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B (2017) Lady Gaga Will Replace Beyoncé at Coachella. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePattern Analysis and Applications
AbbreviationPattern Anal. Appl.
ISSN (print)1433-7541
ISSN (online)1433-755X
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

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