How to format your references using the Avian Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Avian Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott A. German researchers seek legal backing for stem cell work. Nature. 2000 Mar 30;404(6777):424.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wes PD, Bargmann CI. C. elegans odour discrimination requires asymmetric diversity in olfactory neurons. Nature. 2001 Apr 5;410(6829):698–701.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grunwald R, Elsaesser T, Bock M. Spatio-temporal coherence mapping of few-cycle vortex pulses. Sci. Rep. 2014 Nov 21;4:7148.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ruz JJ, Tamayo J, Pini V, Kosaka PM, Calleja M. Physics of nanomechanical spectrometry of viruses. Sci. Rep. 2014 Aug 13;4:6051.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moreau E, Adali T. Blind Identification and Separation of Complex-Valued Signals. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Ueda T, Kawai A, editors. Osteosarcoma. 1st ed. 2016. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Stanta G. Tissue Heterogeneity as a Pre-analytical Source of Variability. In: Dietel M, Wittekind C, Bussolati G, Winterfeld M von, editors. Pre-Analytics of Pathological Specimens in Oncology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 35–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Avian Research.

Blog post
Evans K. Over And Over Again, The Military Has Conducted Dangerous Biowarfare Experiments On Americans [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airline Scheduling: Airline Practices in Establishing and Maintaining Connecting Times. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Sep. Report No.: RCED-88-207.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
RinconGallardo TJ. The effect of the use of learning journals on the development of metacognition in undergraduate students [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. Top of the Class. New York Times. 2016 Dec 9;BR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott 2000; Wes and Bargmann 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wes and Bargmann 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Ruz et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAvian Research
AbbreviationAvian Res.
ISSN (online)2053-7166

Other styles