How to format your references using the Avian Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Avian Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hawkins JM. Organic chemistry: Streamlining drug synthesis. Nature. 2015 Apr 16;520(7547):302–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hagan J, Palloni A. Social science. Death in Darfur. Science. 2006 Sep 15;313(5793):1578–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Long SB, Campbell EB, Mackinnon R. Crystal structure of a mammalian voltage-dependent Shaker family K+ channel. Science. 2005 Aug 5;309(5736):897–903.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Riipi M, Alatalo RV, Lindström L, Mappes J. Multiple benefits of gregariousness cover detectability costs in aposematic aggregations. Nature. 2001 Oct 4;413(6855):512–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marage J-P, Mori Y. Sonar and Underwater Acoustics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Capitelli M. Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics: Kinetics. 1st ed. 2016. Celiberto R, Colonna G, Esposito F, Gorse C, Hassouni K, Laricchiuta A, et al., editors. New York, NY: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang Q, Li H, Zhang X. Cat Scratch Disease. In: Li H, editor. Radiology of Infectious Diseases: Volume 2. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 63–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Avian Research.

Blog post
Hale T. This Font Could Make It Easier To Learn Japanese [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Education of the New Public Executive. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Jul. Report No.: 095393.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beck AJ. Determining Bed Failure Depth in Unconsolidated Submarine Sediments Using Particles in Cell Numerical Modeling [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz M, Rashbaum WK. Accused of Spying, a New York City Correction Official Is Removed. New York Times. 2017 May 8;A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hawkins 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hagan and Palloni 2006; Hawkins 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hagan and Palloni 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Riipi et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleAvian Research
AbbreviationAvian Res.
ISSN (online)2053-7166

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