How to format your references using the Avian Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Avian Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Key words. Nature. 2004 Oct 14;431(7010):879.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ciesla FJ, Sandford SA. Organic synthesis via irradiation and warming of ice grains in the solar nebula. Science. 2012 Apr 27;336(6080):452–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Muraoka T, Kinbara K, Aida T. Mechanical twisting of a guest by a photoresponsive host. Nature. 2006 Mar 23;440(7083):512–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Min B, Ostby E, Sorger V, Ulin-Avila E, Yang L, Zhang X, et al. High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering-gallery microcavity. Nature. 2009 Jan 22;457(7228):455–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harrison A. The Life of D. H. Lawrence. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Lucius G, Rietjens S, editors. Effective Civil-Military Interaction in Peace Operations: Theory and Practice. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Bruneau V, Sambou D. Spectral Clusters for Magnetic Exterior Problems. In: Mantoiu M, Raikov G, Tiedra de Aldecoa R, editors. Spectral Theory and Mathematical Physics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 57–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Avian Research.

Blog post
Andrews R. New “Watchlist” For Left-Leaning Academics Is Both Moronic And Frightening [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Summer Feeding Program for Children: Reforms Begun--Many More Urgently Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Mar. Report No.: CED-78-90.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beck NA. Mobile Apps for Cognitive Restructuring: A Review and Comparative Analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Perlroth N, Wines M, Rosenberg M. Little Effort to Investigate in States Targeted by Election Hacking. New York Times. 2017 Sep 1;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Ciesla and Sandford 2012; Smaglik 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ciesla and Sandford 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Min et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleAvian Research
AbbreviationAvian Res.
ISSN (online)2053-7166

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