How to format your references using the Toxicology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moro-Martin, A., 2014. A call to those who care about Europe’s science. Nature 514, 141.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feldman, D.E., Brecht, M., 2005. Map plasticity in somatosensory cortex. Science 310, 810–815.
A journal article with 3 authors
Collins, F.S., Gray, G.M., Bucher, J.R., 2008. Toxicology. Transforming environmental health protection. Science 319, 906–907.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Söllner, C., Burghammer, M., Busch-Nentwich, E., Berger, J., Schwarz, H., Riekel, C., Nicolson, T., 2003. Control of crystal size and lattice formation by starmaker in otolith biomineralization. Science 302, 282–286.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Irene, E.A., 2005. Electronic Materials Science. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Lee, K.M., Park, S.-J., Lee, J.-H. (Eds.), 2014. Soft Computing in Big Data Processing, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Sullivan, J.C., 2015. Sex Differences in Angiotensin II Hypertension, in: Hyndman, K.A., Pannabecker, T.L. (Eds.), Sodium and Water Homeostasis: Comparative, Evolutionary and Genetic Models. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 91–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology Letters.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017. Researcher Faces Jail For Sharing An Academic Thesis Online [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Weekend Settlement: Potential Benefits, Costs, and Legal Issues (No. GAO-02-938). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meyertholen, A.N., 2014. Blurring the lines: The invention of abstract in German literature since 1800 (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Parker, J., 2016. Dear Diary (Volume 1 of 148). New York Times BR23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moro-Martin, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Feldman and Brecht, 2005; Moro-Martin, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Feldman and Brecht, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Söllner et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology Letters
AbbreviationToxicol. Lett.
ISSN (print)0378-4274
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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