How to format your references using the Toxicology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kasting, J.F., 2001. Earth history. The rise of atmospheric oxygen. Science 293, 819–820.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aragão, L.E.O.C., Shimabukuro, Y.E., 2010. The incidence of fire in Amazonian forests with implications for REDD. Science 328, 1275–1278.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, M., Wei, L., Liu, Y., 2014. Motor preparation attenuates neural variability and beta-band LFP in parietal cortex. Sci. Rep. 4, 6809.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mani, R.-S., Tomlins, S.A., Callahan, K., Ghosh, A., Nyati, M.K., Varambally, S., Palanisamy, N., Chinnaiyan, A.M., 2009. Induced chromosomal proximity and gene fusions in prostate cancer. Science 326, 1230.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Villarroel, A., 2015. Practical Clinical Epidemiology for the Veterinarian. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Müller, T. (Ed.), 2014. Nuel Belnap on Indeterminism and Free Action, Outstanding Contributions to Logic. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Beardall, J., Raven, J.A., 2016. Carbon Acquisition by Microalgae, in: Borowitzka, M.A., Beardall, J., Raven, J.A. (Eds.), The Physiology of Microalgae. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 89–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Scientists Develop Mantis Shrimp-Inspired Sensors That Can Detect Cancer [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Federal-Aid Highways: Trends, Effect on State Spending, and Options for Future Program Design (No. GAO-04-802). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aslanyan, A.L., 2014. Psycho-educational group for family members of adults with a mental health diagnosis: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
This story was reported by C.J. Chivers, Arvedlund, E.E., Kishkovsky, S., Chivers, W. by M., 2004. Editor’s Death Raises Questions About Change in Russia. New York Times 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kasting, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Aragão and Shimabukuro, 2010; Kasting, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aragão and Shimabukuro, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Mani et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology Letters
AbbreviationToxicol. Lett.
ISSN (print)0378-4274
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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