How to format your references using the Toxicology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marchand, A.P., 2003. Chemistry. Diamondoid hydrocarbons--delving into nature’s bounty. Science 299, 52–53.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moore, S.L., Wilson, K., 2002. Parasites as a viability cost of sexual selection in natural populations of mammals. Science 297, 2015–2018.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rössler, U.K., Bogdanov, A.N., Pfleiderer, C., 2006. Spontaneous skyrmion ground states in magnetic metals. Nature 442, 797–801.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, B., Zhang, Y., Wang, Z., Wang, D., Baker, P.J., Pratt, F.L., Zhu, D., 2014. Candidate quantum spin liquid due to dimensional reduction of a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. Sci. Rep. 4, 6451.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Huber, P.J., 2011. Data Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wichert, R., Eberhardt, B. (Eds.), 2011. Ambient Assisted Living: 4. AAL-Kongress 2011, Berlin, Germany, January 25–26, 2011. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ammari, H., Kang, H., 2007. Full Asymptotic Formula for the Potentials, in: Kang, H. (Ed.), Polarization and Moment Tensors: With Applications to Inverse Problems and Effective Medium Theory, Applied Mathematical Sciences. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 129–144.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Inhalable Vaccine Developed For Ebola [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Weather Service Modernization: Risks Remain That Full Systems Potential Will Not be Achieved (No. T-AIMD-97-85). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cummings, A.E., 2009. Brain and behavior in children with phonological delays: Phonological, lexical, and sensory system interactions (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mulcahy, S., 2016. A College That Paid Bills by Selling Its Art. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marchand, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Marchand, 2003; Moore and Wilson, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moore and Wilson, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology Letters
AbbreviationToxicol. Lett.
ISSN (print)0378-4274
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles