How to format your references using the Toxicology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baron, N., 2010. Stand up for science. Nature 468, 1032–1033.
A journal article with 2 authors
Enright, M.C., Spratt, B.G., 2011. Genomics. The genomic view of bacterial diversification. Science 331, 407–409.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tsori, Y., Tournilhac, F., Leibler, L., 2004. Demixing in simple fluids induced by electric field gradients. Nature 430, 544–547.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, H., Wang, L., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Vidal, M., Tempst, P., Jones, R.S., Zhang, Y., 2004. Role of histone H2A ubiquitination in Polycomb silencing. Nature 431, 873–878.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Botsai, E., Kaneshiro, C., Cuccia, P., Pajo, H., 2010. The Architect’s Guide to Preventing Water Infiltration. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Grzech, A., Borzemski, L., Świątek, J., Wilimowska, Z. (Eds.), 2016. Information Systems Architecture and Technology: Proceedings of 36th International Conference on Information Systems Architecture and Technology – ISAT 2015 – Part II, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Kabir, S.M.R., Casey, A.T.H., 2012. Non-Dysraphic Intradural Spinal Cord Lipoma: Management Guidelines, in: Hayat, M.A. (Ed.), Tumors of the Central Nervous System, Volume 6: Spinal Tumors (Part 1). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 29–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology Letters.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. AIDS Epidemic In Australia Declared “Over” By Experts [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. NASA’s FMFIA Assertions and CFO Plan (No. AFMD-93-65R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cheng, L., 2003. SiC Thin-Films on Insulating substrates for Robust MEMS Applications (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M., Walsh, M.W., 2011. Public Pensions, Once Off Limits, Face Budget Cuts. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baron, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Baron, 2010; Enright and Spratt, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Enright and Spratt, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology Letters
AbbreviationToxicol. Lett.
ISSN (print)0378-4274
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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