How to format your references using the Frontiers in Thoracic Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Thoracic Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kelly, D. P. (2012). Medicine. Irisin, light my fire. Science 336, 42–43.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dixon, A. R., and Sato, H. (2014). High speed and adaptable error correction for megabit/s rate quantum key distribution. Sci. Rep. 4, 7275.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arita, I., Nakane, M., and Fenner, F. (2006). Public health. Is polio eradication realistic? Science 312, 852–854.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pavlov, D. A., Bobrov, A. I., Malekhonova, N. V., Pirogov, A. V., and Nezhdanov, A. V. (2014). Self-assembled nanocrystals discovered in Chelyabinsk meteorite. Sci. Rep. 4, 4280.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertein, J.-C., and Ceschi, R. (2013). Discrete Stochastic Processes and Optimal Filtering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yada, K. ed. (2014). Data Mining for Service. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wan, K., Alagar, V., and Paquet, J. (2006). “An Architecture for Developing Context-Aware Systems,” in Modeling and Retrieval of Context: Second International Workshop, MRC 2005, Edinburgh, UK, July 31–August 1, 2005, Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. T. R. Roth-Berghofer, S. Schulz, and D. B. Leake (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 48–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Thoracic Oncology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016). Why Pluto May Have A Large Ocean Beneath Its Icy Surface. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007). Assigning Air Traffic Control Costs to Users: Elements of FAA’s Methodology Are Generally Consistent with Standards but Certain Assumptions and Methods Need Additional Support. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yasami, S. (2015). Ultra-Low Power RFIC for Space/Medical/Mobile Applications.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2003). MOSCOW: THE BALLERINA SUES. New York Times, E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kelly, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Kelly, 2012; Dixon and Sato, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dixon and Sato, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Pavlov et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Thoracic Oncology
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles