How to format your references using the Frontiers in Thoracic Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Thoracic Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Peters, K. (2005). Obituary: Saunders Mac Lane (1909-2005). Nature 435, 292.
A journal article with 2 authors
Embley, T. M., and Martin, W. (2006). Eukaryotic evolution, changes and challenges. Nature 440, 623–630.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ackman, J. B., Burbridge, T. J., and Crair, M. C. (2012). Retinal waves coordinate patterned activity throughout the developing visual system. Nature 490, 219–225.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pang, B., Cheng, S., Sun, S.-P., An, C., Liu, Z.-Y., Feng, X., et al. (2014). Prognostic role of PIK3CA mutations and their association with hormone receptor expression in breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Sci. Rep. 4, 6255.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paret, D. (2016). Design Constraints for NFC Devices. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Meiselwitz, G. ed. (2016). Social Computing and Social Media: 8th International Conference, SCSM 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016, Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17–22, 2016. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Shover, N. (2007). “Generative Worlds of White-Collar Crime,” in International Handbook of White-Collar and Corporate Crime, eds. H. N. Pontell and G. Geis (Boston, MA: Springer US), 81–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Thoracic Oncology.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016). Mammals Took Over The World Remarkably Quickly After The Dinosaurs Bit The Dust. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002). Social Security Administration: Agency Must Position Itself Now to Meet Profound Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kellogg, A. (2010). Hospital Lean and Six Sigma: Is there a financial benefit?

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M. J. (2017). Blue Apron Slashes Price For Its I.P.O. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Peters, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Embley and Martin, 2006; Peters, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Embley and Martin, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Pang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Thoracic Oncology
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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