How to format your references using the Frontiers in Thoracic Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Thoracic Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brown, K. R. (2014). Physics Probing the electron. Science 343, 255–256.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roll-Mecak, A., and Vale, R. D. (2008). Structural basis of microtubule severing by the hereditary spastic paraplegia protein spastin. Nature 451, 363–367.
A journal article with 3 authors
Niemeier, M., Crawford, J. D., and Tweed, D. B. (2003). Optimal transsaccadic integration explains distorted spatial perception. Nature 422, 76–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bethke, A., Fielenbach, N., Wang, Z., Mangelsdorf, D. J., and Antebi, A. (2009). Nuclear hormone receptor regulation of microRNAs controls developmental progression. Science 324, 95–98.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leis, J. W. (2011). Digital Signal Processing Using MATLAB for Students and Researchers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rao, G. ed. (2009). Optical Sensor Systems in Biotechnology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Baccan, D. D., and Macedo, L. (2013). “Revisiting the El Farol Problem: A Cognitive Modeling Approach,” in Multi-Agent-Based Simulation XIII: International Workshop, MABS 2012, Valencia, Spain, June 4-8, 2012, Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. F. Giardini and F. Amblard (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 56–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Thoracic Oncology.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015). Video Shows An Orca Throwing A Seal 80 Feet Into The Air. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1975). Pilot Cities Program: Phaseout Needed Due To Limited National Benefits. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bell, J. (2015). A phenomenological study of African American GS-13 to GS-15 managers within the federal government.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017). Film Series. New York Times, C24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brown, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Roll-Mecak and Vale, 2008; Brown, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roll-Mecak and Vale, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Bethke et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Thoracic Oncology
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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