How to format your references using the Frontiers in Thoracic Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Thoracic Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boughman, J. (2007). Great expectations. Nature 447, 752.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hilf, R. J. C., and Dutzler, R. (2008). X-ray structure of a prokaryotic pentameric ligand-gated ion channel. Nature 452, 375–379.
A journal article with 3 authors
Behrens, T. E. J., Hunt, L. T., and Rushworth, M. F. S. (2009). The computation of social behavior. Science 324, 1160–1164.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Blount, J. D., Metcalfe, N. B., Birkhead, T. R., and Surai, P. F. (2003). Carotenoid modulation of immune function and sexual attractiveness in zebra finches. Science 300, 125–127.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kirwan, M. J. (2013). Handbook of Paper and Paperboard Packaging Technology. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sharma, B. K., Kulshreshtha, S., and Rahmani, A. R. eds. (2013). Faunal Heritage of Rajasthan, India: General Background and Ecology of Vertebrates. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wong, K. K.-H., Colbert, B., Batten, L., and Al-Hinai, S. (2006). “Algebraic Attacks on Clock-Controlled Cascade Ciphers,” in Progress in Cryptology - INDOCRYPT 2006: 7th International Conference on Cryptology in India, Kolkata, India, December 11-13, 2006. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. R. Barua and T. Lange (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 32–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Thoracic Oncology.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017). Australia Set To Keep Unvaccinated Kids Away From School. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1972). Identification of NASA Research and Development Programs Subject to Benefit-Cost Analysis. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vincent, C. (2010). Viewing Dissociative Identity Disorder through a Jungian lens.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2010). A World Of Words Reinvented In Pictures. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boughman, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Boughman, 2007; Hilf and Dutzler, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hilf and Dutzler, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Blount et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Thoracic Oncology
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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