How to format your references using the Journal of Development Effectiveness citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Development Effectiveness. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fuyuno, Ichiko. 2011. “Japan: Will the Sun Set on Kampo?” Nature 480 (7378): S96.
A journal article with 2 authors
Montagner, J. P., and J. Ritsema. 2001. “Geology. Interactions between Ridges and Plumes.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5546): 1472–1473.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moran, Nancy A., Heather J. McLaughlin, and Rotem Sorek. 2009. “The Dynamics and Time Scale of Ongoing Genomic Erosion in Symbiotic Bacteria.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5912): 379–382.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ji, Yang, Yunchul Chung, D. Sprinzak, M. Heiblum, D. Mahalu, and Hadas Shtrikman. 2003. “An Electronic Mach-Zehnder Interferometer.” Nature 422 (6930): 415–418.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kölle, Walter. 2009. Wasseranalysen - Richtig Beurteilt. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Daithankar, Jayant. 2014. Transportation Management with SAP TM 9.0: A Hands-On Guide to Configuring, Implementing, and Optimizing SAP TM. Edited by Tejkumar Pandit. Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Mubayi, Dhruv, and Jacques Verstraëte. 2016. “A Survey of Turán Problems for Expansions.” In Recent Trends in Combinatorics, edited by Andrew Beveridge, Jerrold R. Griggs, Leslie Hogben, Gregg Musiker, and Prasad Tetali, 117–143. The IMA Volumes in Mathematics and Its Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Development Effectiveness.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. “Massive Glacier In Northeastern Greenland Is Melting At An Accelerated Rate.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1984. Improvements Needed in the Department of the Interior’s Measurement of Offshore Oil for Royalty Purposes. RCED-84-78. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kamis, Russell P. 2013. “The Relationship between Expanded Concepts of Self and Well-Being.” Doctoral dissertation, Scottsdale, AZ: Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. 2010. “The Nuclear Option Is Yours.” New York Times, January 31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fuyuno 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Fuyuno 2011; Montagner and Ritsema 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Montagner and Ritsema 2001)
  • Three authors: (Moran, McLaughlin, and Sorek 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ji et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Development Effectiveness
AbbreviationJ. Dev. Effect.
ISSN (print)1943-9342
ISSN (online)1943-9407
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles