How to format your references using the Journal of Development Effectiveness citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Development Effectiveness. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brodholt, J. P. 2000. “Pressure-Induced Changes in the Compression Mechanism of Aluminous Perovskite in the Earth’s Mantle.” Nature 407 (6804): 620–622.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, Xinli, and Jiuhong Xu. 2014. “Dietary and Circulating Lycopene and Stroke Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.” Scientific Reports 4 (May): 5031.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deller, A. T., M. Bailes, and S. J. Tingay. 2009. “Implications of a VLBI Distance to the Double Pulsar J0737-3039A/B.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5919): 1327–1329.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhao, Zhongtao, Huiquan Liu, Yongping Luo, Shanyue Zhou, Lin An, Chenfang Wang, Qiaojun Jin, Mingguo Zhou, and Jin-Rong Xu. 2014. “Molecular Evolution and Functional Divergence of Tubulin Superfamily in the Fungal Tree of Life.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6746.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murphy, Raegan. 2010. Dynamic Assessment, Intelligence and Measurement. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gavrilova, Marina L., C. J. Kenneth Tan, and Alexei Sourin, eds. 2016. Transactions on Computational Science XXVIII: Special Issue on Cyberworlds and Cybersecurity. Vol. 9590. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zwettler, Gerald, Paul Track, Florian Waschaurek, Richard Woschitz, Elmar Hagmann, and Stefan Hinterholzer. 2012. “Towards a Normalized Reference System in Building Construction Planning for Automated Quantitative Assessment and Optimization of Energy and Cost Efficiency.” In IT Revolutions: Third International ICST Conference, Córdoba, Spain, March 23-25, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Matías Liñán Reyes, José M. Flores Arias, Juan J. González de la Rosa, Josef Langer, Francisco J. Bellido Outeiriño, and Antonio Moreno-Munñoz, 39–57. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Development Effectiveness.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. “Gene That Makes People Behave Like Idiots When Drunk Could Also Protect Against Diabetes.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. U.S. Communications Policy: Issues for the 1990s. IMTEC-91-52B. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McConnell, Matrice E. 2017. “A Dual Diagnosis of Hearing Loss and an Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Illustrative Case Study.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, James C., Jr., Benjamin Mueller, and Nate Schweber. 2015. “Second Chances Kept Coming for Suspect in Officer’s Death.” New York Times, October 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brodholt 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Brodholt 2000; Li and Xu 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Xu 2014)
  • Three authors: (Deller, Bailes, and Tingay 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhao et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Development Effectiveness
AbbreviationJ. Dev. Effect.
ISSN (print)1943-9342
ISSN (online)1943-9407
Geography, Planning and Development

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