How to format your references using the Journal of Development Effectiveness citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Development Effectiveness. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Herzberg, Claude. 2006. “Petrology and Thermal Structure of the Hawaiian Plume from Mauna Kea Volcano.” Nature 444 (7119): 605–609.
A journal article with 2 authors
Haldar, Arijit, and Vijay B. Shenoy. 2014. “Cooling a Band Insulator with a Metal: Fermionic Superfluid in a Dimerized Holographic Lattice.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6655.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Jian-Tao, Changfeng Chen, and Yoshiyuki Kawazoe. 2013. “New Carbon Allotropes with Helical Chains of Complementary Chirality Connected by Ethene-Type π-Conjugation.” Scientific Reports 3 (October): 3077.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Saze, Hidetoshi, Akiko Shiraishi, Asuka Miura, and Tetsuji Kakutani. 2008. “Control of Genic DNA Methylation by a JmjC Domain-Containing Protein in Arabidopsis Thaliana.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319 (5862): 462–465.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam, M. R., J. S. Islam, G. M. Zatzman, M. A. H. Mughal, and M. Safiur Rahman. 2015. The Greening of Pharmaceutical Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Robinett, Rush D., III. 2011. Nonlinear Power Flow Control Design: Utilizing Exergy, Entropy, Static and Dynamic Stability, and Lyapunov Analysis. Edited by David G. Wilson. Understanding Complex Systems. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hogg, Tad, David A. Fattal, Kay-Yut Chen, and Saikat Guha. 2010. “Economic Applications of Quantum Information Processing.” In Econophysics and Economics of Games, Social Choices and Quantitative Techniques, edited by Banasri Basu, Satya R. Chakravarty, Bikas K. Chakrabarti, and Kausik Gangopadhyay, 32–43. New Economic Windows. Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Development Effectiveness.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “The Earth’s Inner Core Gives Up More Of Its Magnetic Secrets.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Surface and Maritime Transportation: Developing Strategies for Enhancing Mobility: A National Challenge. GAO-02-775. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nesbit, Paul R. 2014. “Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles and Structure from Motion: A Fresh Approach to Photogrammetry.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Quain, John R. 2017. “Your Car May Soon Be Able to Read Your Face.” New York Times, April 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Herzberg 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Herzberg 2006; Haldar and Shenoy 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Haldar and Shenoy 2014)
  • Three authors: (Wang, Chen, and Kawazoe 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Saze et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Development Effectiveness
AbbreviationJ. Dev. Effect.
ISSN (print)1943-9342
ISSN (online)1943-9407
Geography, Planning and Development

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