How to format your references using the Journal of Development Effectiveness citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Development Effectiveness. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McLaughlin, Stuart. 2006. “Cell Biology. Tools to Tamper with Phosphoinositides.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314 (5804): 1402–1403.
A journal article with 2 authors
Houghton, Michael, and Sergio Abrignani. 2005. “Prospects for a Vaccine against the Hepatitis C Virus.” Nature 436 (7053): 961–966.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sack, Lawren, Teodoro Marañón, and Peter J. Grubb. 2002. “Global Allocation Rules for Patterns of Biomass Partitioning.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5575): 1923.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tan, Xu, Luz Irina A. Calderon-Villalobos, Michal Sharon, Changxue Zheng, Carol V. Robinson, Mark Estelle, and Ning Zheng. 2007. “Mechanism of Auxin Perception by the TIR1 Ubiquitin Ligase.” Nature 446 (7136): 640–645.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li, Feng-Chen, Bo Yu, Jin-Jia Wei, and Yasuo Kawaguchi. 2011. Turbulent Drag Reduction by Surfactant Additives. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Hosking, Roger J., and Ezio Venturino, eds. 2008. Aspects of Mathematical Modelling: Applications in Science, Medicine, Economics and Management. Mathematics and Biosciences in Interaction. Basel: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Bodner, Gerd. 2008. “Nerve Compression Syndromes.” In High-Resolution Sonography of the Peripheral Nervous System, edited by Siegfried Peer and Gerd Bodner, 71–122. Medical Radiology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Development Effectiveness.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “Why WHO Needs A Radical Rethink Of Its Draconian Approach To Cannabis.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Information Technology: OMB and Agencies Need to More Effectively Implement Major Initiatives to Save Billions of Dollars. GAO-13-796T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cervantes, Ignacio. 2013. “Flexural Retrofitting of Reinforced Concrete Structures Using Green Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Plates.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wakin, Daniel J., and Mary Williams Walsh. 2011. “Other Orchestras Fear Paying Price for Philadelphia Pension Crisis.” New York Times, December 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McLaughlin 2006).
This sentence cites two references (McLaughlin 2006; Houghton and Abrignani 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Houghton and Abrignani 2005)
  • Three authors: (Sack, Marañón, and Grubb 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tan et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Development Effectiveness
AbbreviationJ. Dev. Effect.
ISSN (print)1943-9342
ISSN (online)1943-9407
Geography, Planning and Development

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