How to format your references using the Journal of Development Effectiveness citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Development Effectiveness. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Houghton, John. 2008. “Meetings That Changed the World: Madrid 1995: Diagnosing Climate Change.” Nature 455 (7214): 737–738.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heinze, Stanley, and Uwe Homberg. 2007. “Maplike Representation of Celestial E-Vector Orientations in the Brain of an Insect.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5814): 995–997.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hosseini, Peiman, C. David Wright, and Harish Bhaskaran. 2014. “An Optoelectronic Framework Enabled by Low-Dimensional Phase-Change Films.” Nature 511 (7508): 206–211.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gavriil, F. P., M. E. Gonzalez, E. V. Gotthelf, V. M. Kaspi, M. A. Livingstone, and P. M. Woods. 2008. “Magnetar-like Emission from the Young Pulsar in Kes 75.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319 (5871): 1802–1805.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morley, David. 2017. Communications and Mobility. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Michailov, Michail, ed. 2011. Nanophenomena at Surfaces: Fundamentals of Exotic Condensed Matter Properties. Vol. 47. Springer Series in Surface Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, Dongmei, Guomin Li, Ruixiang Fan, and Guang Guo. 2016. “Research About Big Data Platform of Electrical Power System.” In Industrial IoT Technologies and Applications: International Conference, Industrial IoT 2016, GuangZhou, China, March 25-26, 2016, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Jiafu Wan, Iztok Humar, and Daqiang Zhang, 36–43. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Development Effectiveness.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. “New Crab Species Honors Harry Potter (And The Crustacean Of Secrets).” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Federal Communications Commission: Competitive Bidding Procedures. OGC-98-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spidell, Rachel M. 2017. “Reexamining Richard Strauss’s Second Horn Concerto as a Significant Contribution to Twentieth-Century Music.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines, Michael. 2017. “Asked for Data on Voters, States Give Trump Panel a Bipartisan ‘No.’” New York Times, July 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Houghton 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Houghton 2008; Heinze and Homberg 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heinze and Homberg 2007)
  • Three authors: (Hosseini, Wright, and Bhaskaran 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Gavriil et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Development Effectiveness
AbbreviationJ. Dev. Effect.
ISSN (print)1943-9342
ISSN (online)1943-9407
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles