How to format your references using the International Journal of Wildland Fire citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Wildland Fire. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alamaro M (2014) Water politics must adapt to a warming world. Nature 514, 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roeb M, Müller-Steinhagen H (2010) Engineering. Concentrating on solar electricity and fuels. Science (New York, NY) 329, 773–774.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grosman C, Zhou M, Auerbach A (2000) Mapping the conformational wave of acetylcholine receptor channel gating. Nature 403, 773–776.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Roca AL, Georgiadis N, Pecon-Slattery J, O’Brien SJ (2001) Genetic evidence for two species of elephant in Africa. Science (New York, NY) 293, 1473–1477.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alberty RA (2011) ‘Enzyme Kinetics: Rapid-Equilibrium Enzyme Kinetics.’ (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ)
An edited book
Gronau H-D, Langmann H-H, Schleicher D (Eds) (2011) ‘50th IMO - 50 Years of International Mathematical Olympiads.’ (Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg)
A chapter in an edited book
Galdi GP, Neustupa J (2016) Stability of Steady Flow Past a Rotating Body. ‘Mathematical Fluid Dynamics, Present and Future: Tokyo, Japan, November 2014’. (Eds Y Shibata, Y Suzuki) Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics. pp. 71–94. (Springer Japan: Tokyo)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Wildland Fire.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Lab-grown Esophagus Implanted in Rat. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Space Data: Information on Data Storage Technologies. U.S. Government Printing Office, IMTEC-90-88FS. (Washington, DC)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Purdioux L (2015) Predicting deception detection ability based on the concept of self-compassionate personality trait, openness personality structure, and agreeableness personality structure. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GEORGE GENE GUSTINES; Compiled by RACHEL LEE HARRIS (2010) Comic Strips Think Pink. New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alamaro 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Roeb and Müller-Steinhagen 2010; Alamaro 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roeb and Müller-Steinhagen 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Roca et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Wildland Fire
AbbreviationInt. J. Wildland Fire
ISSN (print)1049-8001
ISSN (online)1448-5516

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