How to format your references using the International Journal of Wildland Fire citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Wildland Fire. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hodges KV (2012) IBI series winner. Solving complex problems. Science (New York, NY) 338, 1164–1165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacque J-M, Stevenson M (2006) The inner-nuclear-envelope protein emerin regulates HIV-1 infectivity. Nature 441, 641–645.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sobolev AV, Hofmann AW, Nikogosian IK (2000) Recycled oceanic crust observed in ‘ghost plagioclase’ within the source of Mauna Loa lavas. Nature 404, 986–990.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
He Y, Hashimoto M, Song D, Chen S-D, He J, Vishik IM, Moritz B, Lee D-H, Nagaosa N, Zaanen J, Devereaux TP, Yoshida Y, Eisaki H, Lu DH, Shen Z-X (2018) Rapid change of superconductivity and electron-phonon coupling through critical doping in Bi-2212. Science (New York, NY) 362, 62–65.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Griffin PM, Nembhard HB, DeFlitch CJ, Bastian ND, Kang H, Muñoz DA (2015) ‘Healthcare Systems Engineering.’ (John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ)
An edited book
Streckfus CF (Ed) (2015) ‘Advances in Salivary Diagnostics.’ (Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg)
A chapter in an edited book
Carlevale E (2011) Creating Community Web Sites with Organic Groups. ‘The Definitive Guide to Drupal 7’. (Eds J Luisi, K Négyesi, G Anderson, B Somers, S Corlosquet, S Freudenberg, M Lauer, E Carlevale, F Lorétan, D Nordin, R Szrama, S Stewart, J Strawn, B Travis, D Hakimzadeh, A Scavarda, A Albala, A Micka, R Douglass, R Monks, R Scholten, P Wolanin, KV Valkenburgh, G Stout, KQ Dolin, M Gifford, C Sarahe, S Boyer, F Mars, G Cassie, M Ryan, N Catchpole, D Gaskin) pp. 109–124. (Apress: Berkeley, CA)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Wildland Fire.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2017) Tackling The Kraken: Unique Dolphin Strategy Delivers Dangerous Octopus For Dinner. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) First Look at Senior Executive Service Performance Awards/NASA. U.S. Government Printing Office, FPCD-80-85. (Washington, DC)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yu B (2013) Periodic Motions and Bifurcation Tree in a Periodically Excited Oscillator with Quadratic Nonlinearity. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Hodgman J (2017) Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times MM22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hodges 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Jacque and Stevenson 2006; Hodges 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jacque and Stevenson 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (He et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Wildland Fire
AbbreviationInt. J. Wildland Fire
ISSN (print)1049-8001
ISSN (online)1448-5516

Other styles