How to format your references using the International Journal of Wildland Fire citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Wildland Fire. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thompson JN (2012) Evolution. The role of coevolution. Science (New York, NY) 335, 410–411.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dalton R, Abbott A (2000) Hawaii reaches for the stars with astronomy master plan. Nature 405, 872.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kolodner RD, Putnam CD, Myung K (2002) Maintenance of genome stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Science (New York, NY) 297, 552–557.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Groombridge JJ, Jones CG, Bruford MW, Nichols RA (2000) ‘Ghost’ alleles of the Mauritius kestrel. Nature 403, 616.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Courant R, McShane EJ (1988) ‘Differential and Integral Calculus.’ (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ)
An edited book
Carstensen C, Wriggers P (Eds) (2009) ‘Mixed Finite Element Technologies.’ (Springer: Vienna)
A chapter in an edited book
Stanta G (2015) Tissue Heterogeneity as a Pre-analytical Source of Variability. ‘Pre-Analytics of Pathological Specimens in Oncology’. (Eds M Dietel, C Wittekind, G Bussolati, M von Winterfeld) Recent Results in Cancer Research. pp. 35–43. (Springer International Publishing: Cham)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Wildland Fire.

Blog post
Potvin S (2017) New Species Of Flying Squirrel Discovered In North America. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Mass Transit: FTA’s Progress in Developing and Implementing a New Starts Evaluation Process. U.S. Government Printing Office, RCED-99-113. (Washington, DC)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jha JS (2013) [3+2] Cycloaddition Reaction of Gem-Dicyanoepoxide and Electrophilic Reaction of Ethyl Atropate. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J (2017) Ferguson Voters Return a White Mayor to Office. New York Times A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thompson 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Dalton and Abbott 2000; Thompson 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dalton and Abbott 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Groombridge et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Wildland Fire
AbbreviationInt. J. Wildland Fire
ISSN (print)1049-8001
ISSN (online)1448-5516

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