How to format your references using the International Journal of Wildland Fire citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Wildland Fire. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buchanan M (2002) A game of chance. Nature 419, 787.
A journal article with 2 authors
Watson AJA, Williams JMJ (2010) Chemistry. The give and take of alcohol activation. Science (New York, NY) 329, 635–636.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoon S-J, Yi SK, Lee Y-W (2006) Explaining the color distributions of globular cluster systems in elliptical galaxies. Science (New York, NY) 311, 1129–1132.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang J, Zeng Z, Lin H-Q, Li Y-L (2014) Pressure-induced planar N6 rings in potassium azide. Scientific Reports 4, 4358.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Terré M, Pischella M, Vivier E (2013) ‘Wireless Telecommunication Systems.’ (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ USA)
An edited book
Stempsey WE (Ed) (2005) ‘Elisha Bartlett’s Philosophy of Medicine.’ (Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht)
A chapter in an edited book
Shaw IS, Luo D (2016) Citizen Journalism, Cyber-Activism, and ‘Crowdsourcing’: Discussing the Sacking of Sierra Leone’s Vice President Sam Sumana on Facebook and Twitter. ‘Digital Activism in the Social Media Era: Critical Reflections on Emerging Trends in Sub-Saharan Africa’. (Ed B Mutsvairo) pp. 95–112. (Springer International Publishing: Cham)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Wildland Fire.

Blog post
Andrews R (2015) Study Finds Pork And Human DNA In Vegetarian Hot Dogs. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) SEC: EDGAR Dissemination Update. U.S. Government Printing Office, AIMD-93-18R. (Washington, DC)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Belflower KE (2012) The relationship between demographic and employment variables of job satisfaction among emergency nurses. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B, Green J (2017) What’s A Show Without Its Star? New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buchanan 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Buchanan 2002; Watson and Williams 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Watson and Williams 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Wildland Fire
AbbreviationInt. J. Wildland Fire
ISSN (print)1049-8001
ISSN (online)1448-5516

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