How to format your references using the Toxicology in Vitro citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology in Vitro. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baumann, P., 2009. Journal club. A molecular biologist explores ways to revolutionize agriculture. Nature 462, 547.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nunes, F., Norris, R.D., 2006. Abrupt reversal in ocean overturning during the Palaeocene/Eocene warm period. Nature 439, 60–63.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bliss, T.V.P., Collingridge, G.L., Laroche, S., 2006. Neuroscience. ZAP and ZIP, a story to forget. Science 313, 1058–1059.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mishchenko, M.I., Geogdzhayev, I.V., Rossow, W.B., Cairns, B., Carlson, B.E., Lacis, A.A., Liu, L., Travis, L.D., 2007. Long-term satellite record reveals likely recent aerosol trend. Science 315, 1543.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Diver, D.A., 2013. Plasma Formulary for Physics, Astronomy, and Technology. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Hüllermeier, E., Kruse, R., Hoffmann, F. (Eds.), 2010. Computational Intelligence for Knowledge-Based Systems Design: 13th International Conference on Information Processing and Management of Uncertainty, IPMU 2010, Dortmund, Germany, June 28 - July 2, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Sachar, R., Kapadia, S., 2007. Cerebrovascular Anatomy, in: Saw, J., Exaire, J.E., Lee, D.S., Yadav, J.S. (Eds.), Handbook Of Complex Percutaneous Carotid Intervention. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 65–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology in Vitro.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Researchers And Politicians Slam The War On Drugs As A Failure [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Electronic Health Information: HHS Needs to Strengthen Security and Privacy Guidance and Oversight (No. GAO-16-771). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rosie, S.A., 2012. Examining stakeholder perceptions of educational success in the Malagasy public education system (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2002. Looking for Wiseguys In the Land of Checked Tablecloths. New York Times 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baumann, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Baumann, 2009; Nunes and Norris, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nunes and Norris, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Mishchenko et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology in Vitro
AbbreviationToxicol. In Vitro
ISSN (print)0887-2333
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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