How to format your references using the Toxicology in Vitro citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology in Vitro. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Inan, U., 2005. Atmospheric science. Gamma rays made on Earth. Science 307, 1054–1055.
A journal article with 2 authors
St Laurent, L.C., Thurnherr, A.M., 2007. Intense mixing of lower thermocline water on the crest of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Nature 448, 680–683.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coaker, G., Falick, A., Staskawicz, B., 2005. Activation of a phytopathogenic bacterial effector protein by a eukaryotic cyclophilin. Science 308, 548–550.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rosenstiel, T.N., Potosnak, M.J., Griffin, K.L., Fall, R., Monson, R.K., 2003. Increased CO2 uncouples growth from isoprene emission in an agriforest ecosystem. Nature 421, 256–259.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lieberman, N.P., 2012. Troubleshooting Vacuum Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gendler, R., 2011. Treasures of the Southern Sky. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Artschwager, A., Fischer, T., Stellmach, D., Yepes, R., Weiß, M., De Sabbata, P., Gessa, N., D’Agosta, G., Busanelli, M., Novelli, C., Fabian, J., Morgenstern, M., 2009. New Quality of Partnership in the Textile World – Concepts and Technologies, in: Walter, L., Kartsounis, G.-A., Carosio, S. (Eds.), Transforming Clothing Production into a Demand-Driven, Knowledge-Based, High-Tech Industry: The Leapfrog Paradigm. Springer, London, pp. 141–200.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology in Vitro.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. New Metal-Air Battery Drives Car 1800Km Without Recharge [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1984. Major Federal Research and Development Agencies Are Implementing the Patent and Trademark Amendments of 1980 (No. RCED-84-26). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Karch, K., 2014. An investigation of perceptions about smart mobile phone usage as an instructional tool in a high school classroom (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Zernike, K., 2015. ‘A Crazy Shake.’ Then Metal Tearing, and Chaos. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Inan, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Inan, 2005; St Laurent and Thurnherr, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (St Laurent and Thurnherr, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Rosenstiel et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology in Vitro
AbbreviationToxicol. In Vitro
ISSN (print)0887-2333
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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