How to format your references using the Toxicology in Vitro citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology in Vitro. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schilling, G., 2000. ASTRONOMY: The Virtual Observatory Moves Closer to Reality. Science 289, 238a–9a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tamamis, P., Floudas, C.A., 2014. Elucidating a key anti-HIV-1 and cancer-associated axis: the structure of CCL5 (Rantes) in complex with CCR5. Sci. Rep. 4, 5447.
A journal article with 3 authors
McElwain, J.C., Wagner, P.J., Hesselbo, S.P., 2009. Fossil plant relative abundances indicate sudden loss of Late Triassic biodiversity in East Greenland. Science 324, 1554–1556.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sekine, T., Kakuta, T., Nakamura, T., Kobayashi, Y., Takashima, Y., Harada, A., 2014. A macroscopic reaction: direct covalent bond formation between materials using a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. Sci. Rep. 4, 6348.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chartered Institute of Building, 2016. Code of Practice for Programme Management in the Built Environment. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Antsaklis, P.J., 2006. Linear Systems. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
de Freitas, C.R., Perry, M., 2012. Principles and Indicators, in: Perry, M. (Ed.), New Environmentalism: Managing New Zealand’s Environmental Diversity. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 105–132.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology in Vitro.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Twin Stars Hosting Two Jupiter-Sized Exoplanets Discovered [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. DOD Space Systems: Additional Knowledge Would Better Support Decisions about Disaggregating Large Satellites (No. GAO-15-7). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, S.A., 2009. Development of an age-appropriate, facility-specific nutrition screening and assessment tool for the elderly (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S.M., 2015. Prepared Foods With Panache. New York Times LI9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schilling, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Schilling, 2000; Tamamis and Floudas, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tamamis and Floudas, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Sekine et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology in Vitro
AbbreviationToxicol. In Vitro
ISSN (print)0887-2333
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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