How to format your references using the Toxicology in Vitro citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology in Vitro. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marshall, C., 2005. Comment on “Abrupt and gradual extinction among Late Permian land vertebrates in the Karoo basin, South Africa.” Science 308, 1413; author reply 1413.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, X., Key, J.R., 2003. Recent trends in Arctic surface, cloud, and radiation properties from space. Science 299, 1725–1728.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bates, M.E., Simmons, J.A., Zorikov, T.V., 2011. Bats use echo harmonic structure to distinguish their targets from background clutter. Science 333, 627–630.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Keung, A.J., Dong, M., Schaffer, D.V., Kumar, S., 2013. Pan-neuronal maturation but not neuronal subtype differentiation of adult neural stem cells is mechanosensitive. Sci. Rep. 3, 1817.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Halloran, M., Thies, C., 2012. The Social Media Handbook for Financial Advisors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Levitt, J.O., Sobanko, J.F. (Eds.), 2015. Safety in Office-Based Dermatologic Surgery. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Banerjee, A., Sur, B., 2014. Primitive Channels: Concurrency Control, in: Sur, B. (Ed.), SystemC and SystemC-AMS in Practice: SystemC 2.3, 2.2 and SystemC-AMS 1.0. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 13–24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology in Vitro.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Penguins Can Only Taste Salty And Sour [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Railroad Safety: Human Factor Accidents and Issues Affecting Engineer Work Schedules (No. RCED-93-160BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kreisel, M., 2015. Gabor frames for quasicrystals and K-theory (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2017. A Mets Pitcher’s Call-Up From Class AA Is a Surprise to Him. New York Times B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marshall, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Marshall, 2005; Wang and Key, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Key, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Keung et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology in Vitro
AbbreviationToxicol. In Vitro
ISSN (print)0887-2333
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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