How to format your references using the Toxicology in Vitro citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology in Vitro. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shukla, J., 2007. Atmosphere. Monsoon mysteries. Science 318, 204–205.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sekido, R., Lovell-Badge, R., 2008. Sex determination involves synergistic action of SRY and SF1 on a specific Sox9 enhancer. Nature 453, 930–934.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hu, D.L., Chan, B., Bush, J.W.M., 2003. The hydrodynamics of water strider locomotion. Nature 424, 663–666.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chang, L., Azzolin, L., Di Biagio, D., Zanconato, F., Battilana, G., Lucon Xiccato, R., Aragona, M., Giulitti, S., Panciera, T., Gandin, A., Sigismondo, G., Krijgsveld, J., Fassan, M., Brusatin, G., Cordenonsi, M., Piccolo, S., 2018. The SWI/SNF complex is a mechanoregulated inhibitor of YAP and TAZ. Nature 563, 265–269.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ciobanu, C.V., Wang, C.-Z., Ho, K.-M., 2013. Atomic Structure Prediction of Nanostructures, Clusters and Surfaces. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Rothengatter, W., Hayashi, Y., Schade, W. (Eds.), 2011. Transport Moving to Climate Intelligence: New Chances for Controlling Climate Impacts of Transport after the Economic Crisis, Transportation Research, Economics and Policy. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Knoth, S., 2006. The Art of Evaluating Monitoring Schemes — How to Measure the Performance of Control Charts?, in: Lenz, H.-J., Wilrich, P.-T. (Eds.), Frontiers in Statistical Quality Control 8. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, pp. 74–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology in Vitro.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Is Iceland’s Ominous Katla Volcano About To Erupt? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973. Protest Against Rejection of Bid (No. B-178720). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Torres Garcia, A.C., 2015. The Impact of Health Insurance Coverage on the Use of Preventive Health Services and Healthy Behaviors: Evidence from Mexico’s Public Health Insurance Program “Seguro Popular” (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2011. Seeing a Former Champion Beyond His Combative Side. New York Times B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shukla, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Sekido and Lovell-Badge, 2008; Shukla, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sekido and Lovell-Badge, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Chang et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology in Vitro
AbbreviationToxicol. In Vitro
ISSN (print)0887-2333
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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