How to format your references using the Toxicology in Vitro citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology in Vitro. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lloyd, S., 2004. Going into reverse. Nature 430, 971.
A journal article with 2 authors
De Francesco, R., Migliaccio, G., 2005. Challenges and successes in developing new therapies for hepatitis C. Nature 436, 953–960.
A journal article with 3 authors
Noda, S., Chutinan, A., Imada, M., 2000. Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure. Nature 407, 608–610.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nikolov, N., Sing, D.K., Fortney, J.J., Goyal, J.M., Drummond, B., Evans, T.M., Gibson, N.P., De Mooij, E.J.W., Rustamkulov, Z., Wakeford, H.R., Smalley, B., Burgasser, A.J., Hellier, C., Helling, C., Mayne, N.J., Madhusudhan, N., Kataria, T., Baines, J., Carter, A.L., Ballester, G.E., Barstow, J.K., McCleery, J., Spake, J.J., 2018. An absolute sodium abundance for a cloud-free “hot Saturn” exoplanet. Nature 557, 526–529.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shover, L., 2013. Trading Options in Turbulent Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Jannesson, E., Nilsson, F., Rapp, B. (Eds.), 2014. Strategy, Control and Competitive Advantage: Case Study Evidence, Management for Professionals. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Karahan, Ö., Çolak, O., 2013. The Impact of Inflation Targeting Policy on the Inflation Uncertainty in Turkey, in: Karasavvoglou, A., Polychronidou, P. (Eds.), Balkan and Eastern European Countries in the Midst of the Global Economic Crisis, Contributions to Economics. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, pp. 49–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology in Vitro.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. A 2000-Year-Old Dog Burial Site Has Been Found Near The Arctic Circle [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. Inconsistencies in Awarding Financial Aid to Students Under Four Federal Programs (No. HRD-79-16). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carrier, T.H., 2017. Using Grunig’s Situational Theory for Analysis of Frames in Human Trafficking Awareness Organizations’ YouTube Videos (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D., 2008. Smoked. New York Times BR18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lloyd, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (De Francesco and Migliaccio, 2005; Lloyd, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (De Francesco and Migliaccio, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Nikolov et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology in Vitro
AbbreviationToxicol. In Vitro
ISSN (print)0887-2333
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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