How to format your references using the American Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fukami T. IBI* series winner. Integrating inquiry-based teaching with faculty research. Science 2013;339:1536–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Majumder MA, Cohen CB. Research ethics. The NIH draft guidelines on human stem cell research. Science 2009;324:1648–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim M, Carman CV, Springer TA. Bidirectional transmembrane signaling by cytoplasmic domain separation in integrins. Science 2003;301:1720–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hyman SD, Lazio TJW, Kassim NE, Ray PS, Markwardt CB, Yusef-Zadeh F. A powerful bursting radio source towards the Galactic Centre. Nature 2005;434:50–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prydie D, Hewitt I. Practical Physiotherapy for Small Animal Practice. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Maris CW, Jacobs FCLM, editors. Law, Order and Freedom: A Historical Introduction to Legal Philosophy. vol. 94. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Sandberg R, Rollins M. Develop Apps Like a Pro. In: Rollins M, editor. The Business of Android Apps Development: Making and Marketing Apps that Succeed on Google Play, Amazon App Store and More, Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2013, p. 51–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Spinal Cord Stimulation Allows Completely Paralyzed Rats To Walk Again. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Digital Service Programs: Assessing Results and Coordinating with Chief Information Officers Can Improve Delivery of Federal Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huff HK. Thumb Twiddle Glossolalia: The Soumage. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Puerto Rico Revises Plan to Reduce Debt as Optimism Dwindles. New York Times 2016:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Emergency Medicine
ISSN (print)0735-6757

Other styles