How to format your references using the Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ferrara, A., 2002. Astronomy. Radio noise from dust grains. Science 295, 638–639.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matsumoto, K., Tanaka, K., 2004. Neuroscience. Conflict and cognitive control. Science 303, 969–970.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ni, S., Kanamori, H., Helmberger, D., 2005. Seismology: energy radiation from the Sumatra earthquake. Nature 434, 582.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yokoya, T., Kiss, T., Chainani, A., Shin, S., Nohara, M., Takagi, H., 2001. Fermi surface sheet-dependent superconductivity in 2H-NbSe2. Science 294, 2518–2520.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kindmann, R., Krüger, U., 2013. Stahlbau. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Martín-Sánchez, J.M., 2015. ADEX Optimized Adaptive Controllers and Systems: From Research to Industrial Practice, Advances in Industrial Control. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Diaconescu, R., 2006. Jewels of Institution-Independent Model Theory, in: Futatsugi, K., Jouannaud, J.-P., Meseguer, J. (Eds.), Algebra, Meaning, and Computation: Essays Dedicated to Joseph A. Goguen on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 65–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017. Mount Etna’s Rivers Of Lava Are Incredibly Hypnotic [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Financial Management Systems: Additional Efforts Needed to Address Key Causes of Modernization Failures (No. GAO-06-184). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weygandt, A., 2017. Extension of Elementary Functions to Zeon Algebras (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by, 2006. Arts, Briefly; Solzhenitsyn, Ready For Another Close-Up. New York Times E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ferrara, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Ferrara, 2002; Matsumoto and Tanaka, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Matsumoto and Tanaka, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Yokoya et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
AbbreviationToxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
ISSN (print)0041-008X

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