How to format your references using the Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walsh, C.T., 2004. Polyketide and nonribosomal peptide antibiotics: modularity and versatility. Science 303, 1805–1810.
A journal article with 2 authors
Germain, R.N., Paul, W.E., 2011. Baruj Benacerraf (1920-2011). Nature 477, 34.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gess, R.W., Coates, M.I., Rubidge, B.S., 2006. A lamprey from the Devonian period of South Africa. Nature 443, 981–984.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hodell, D.A., Brenner, M., Curtis, J.H., Guilderson, T., 2001. Solar forcing of drought frequency in the Maya lowlands. Science 292, 1367–1370.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leleux, B., van Swaay, H., Megally, E., 2015. Private Equity 4.0. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Long, S., Dhillon, B.S. (Eds.), 2015. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Man–Machine–Environment System Engineering, 1st ed. 2015. ed, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Olson, D.L., Wu, D., 2008. Supply Chain Risk Management, in: Olson, David L., Wu, Desheng (Eds.), New Frontiers in Enterprise Risk Management. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 57–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2015. This Great Infographic Breaks Down The Top 5 Misconceptions About Evolution [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Computer Operations: FAA Needs to Implement an Effective Capacity Management Program (No. IMTEC-92-2). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kraka, E.K., 2012. Assessment of herbicides for control of non-native species: Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne spp. multiflorum ), tropical spiderwort (Commelina benghalensis), and tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J.C., Jr., Southall, A., Baker, A.L., 2016. Bronx Killing Leaves Only the Police in the Dark. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Walsh, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Germain and Paul, 2011; Walsh, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Germain and Paul, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Hodell et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
AbbreviationToxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
ISSN (print)0041-008X

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