How to format your references using the Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bartlett, S.D., 2014. Quantum computing: powered by magic. Nature 510, 345–347.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rubin, E.M., Tall, A., 2000. Perspectives for vascular genomics. Nature 407, 265–269.
A journal article with 3 authors
Williamson, C.E., Saros, J.E., Schindler, D.W., 2009. Climate change. Sentinels of change. Science 323, 887–888.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lévy, F., Sheikin, I., Grenier, B., Huxley, A.D., 2005. Magnetic field-induced superconductivity in the ferromagnet URhGe. Science 309, 1343–1346.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shafer, G., Vovk, V., 2005. Probability and Finance: It’s Only a Game!, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Seli, E., Agarwal, A. (Eds.), 2012. Fertility Preservation: Emerging Technologies and Clinical Applications. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Bertolo, S., 2008. Information Overload and FP7 Funding Opportunities in 2009-10, in: Železný, F., Lavrač, N. (Eds.), Inductive Logic Programming: 18th International Conference, ILP 2008 Prague, Czech Republic, September 10-12, 2008 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 5–5.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Earth-Sized Exoplanet In Habitable Zone Announcement Close [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1983. Poor Design and Management Hamper Army’s Basic Skills Education Program (No. FPCD-83-19). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yanez, A.M., 2010. Chicano and Black radical activism of the 1960s: A comparison between the Brown Berets and the Black Panther Party in California (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2001. Using the Art of Graffiti To Start a Conversation. New York Times 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bartlett, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bartlett, 2014; Rubin and Tall, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rubin and Tall, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Lévy et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
AbbreviationToxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
ISSN (print)0041-008X

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