How to format your references using the Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball, P., 2015. Carl Djerassi (1923-2015). Nature 519, 34.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shchukin, D., Möhwald, H., 2013. Materials science. A coat of many functions. Science 341, 1458–1459.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peelen, M.V., Fei-Fei, L., Kastner, S., 2009. Neural mechanisms of rapid natural scene categorization in human visual cortex. Nature 460, 94–97.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chang, C.C., Nicholson, A.N., Rinaldi, E., Berkowitz, E., Garron, N., Brantley, D.A., Monge-Camacho, H., Monahan, C.J., Bouchard, C., Clark, M.A., Joó, B., Kurth, T., Orginos, K., Vranas, P., Walker-Loud, A., 2018. A per-cent-level determination of the nucleon axial coupling from quantum chromodynamics. Nature 558, 91–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS), 2011. Supplemental Proceedings. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ho, T.B., Cheung, D., Liu, H. (Eds.), 2005. Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining: 9th Pacific-Asia Conference, PAKDD 2005, Hanoi, Vietnam, May 18-20, 2005. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Guerraggio, A., Paoloni, G., 2013. Days of Firing from a Dirigible, in: Paoloni, G. (Ed.), Vito Volterra. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 77–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Why is the Universe Accelerating? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Actions Needed on Electronic Data Exchanges (No. AIMD-98-124). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Terrell, S., 2010. How Global Leaders Develop: A Phenomenological Study of Global Leadership Development (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2009. Mileposts, With South Africa Around the Bend. New York Times SP10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ball, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ball, 2015; Shchukin and Möhwald, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shchukin and Möhwald, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Chang et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
AbbreviationToxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
ISSN (print)0041-008X

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