How to format your references using the Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carrell, R.W., 2004. Biomedicine. Prion dormancy and disease. Science 306, 1692–1693.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kuper, A., Marks, J., 2011. Anthropologists unite! Nature 470, 166–168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zerbino, D.R., Paten, B., Haussler, D., 2012. Integrating genomes. Science 336, 179–182.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, Y., Maharana, S., Wang, M.D., Shivashankar, G.V., 2014. Super-resolution microscopy reveals decondensed chromatin structure at transcription sites. Sci. Rep. 4, 4477.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Merrills, J., Fisher, J., 2008. Pharmacy Law and Practice. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Halasz, P., 2013. Dynamic Structure of NREM Sleep. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
de Asis, E.D., Li, Y., Austin, A.J., Leung, J., Nguyen, C.V., 2010. Carbon Nanotube Atomic Force Microscopy with Applications to Biology and Electronics, in: Bhushan, B. (Ed.), Scanning Probe Microscopy in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NanoScience and Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 129–168.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017. Sensitive T-Rex Relative Might Have Evolved In A Different Way [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981. Social Security Needs To Better Plan, Develop, and Implement Its Major ADP Systems Redesign Projects (No. HRD-81-47). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Slabaugh, J.L., 2012. The Occurrence of Alternans and Arrhythmias in a Multicellular, Cardiac Preparation (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M., 1993. First Lady and Top Official Visit, Both Named Hillary Clinton. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carrell, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Carrell, 2004; Kuper and Marks, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kuper and Marks, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
AbbreviationToxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
ISSN (print)0041-008X

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