How to format your references using the Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Klar, A.J.S., 2002. Fibonacci’s flowers. Nature 417, 595.
A journal article with 2 authors
Raine, N.E., Gill, R.J., 2015. Ecology: Tasteless pesticides affect bees in the field. Nature 521, 38–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vega, A.V., Avila, G., Matthews, G., 2013. Interaction between the transcriptional corepressor Sin3B and voltage-gated sodium channels modulates functional channel expression. Sci. Rep. 3, 2809.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ostrowski, S.G., Van Bell, C.T., Winograd, N., Ewing, A.G., 2004. Mass spectrometric imaging of highly curved membranes during Tetrahymena mating. Science 305, 71–73.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lalanne, C., 2014. Sinusoidal Vibration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Brüggemann, R., 2011. Ranking and Prioritization for Multi-indicator Systems: Introduction to Partial Order Applications, Environmental and Ecological Statistics. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Iyer, K.M., 2013. The Elbow Joint, in: Iyer, K.M. (Ed.), Trauma Management in Orthopedics. Springer, London, pp. 27–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017. A Giant Ringed Planet Is Likely The Cause Of Mysterious Eclipses [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. Transportation Worker Identification Credential: Mailing Credentials to Applicants’ Residences Would Not Be Consistent with DHS Policy (No. GAO-11-542R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gomes, S., 2010. The Lanterman-Petris-Short Act and the effects of deinstitutionalization on the mentally ill (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Lesch, D.W., Gelvin, J., 2017. What has Assad won? New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Klar, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Klar, 2002; Raine and Gill, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Raine and Gill, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Ostrowski et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
AbbreviationToxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
ISSN (print)0041-008X

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