How to format your references using the Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koenig, R., 2000. IRANIAN SCIENCE: Iranian Women Hear the Call of Science. Science 290, 1485.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tumer, E.C., Brainard, M.S., 2007. Performance variability enables adaptive plasticity of “crystallized” adult birdsong. Nature 450, 1240–1244.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oppo, D.W., McManus, J.F., Cullen, J.L., 2003. Palaeo-oceanography: Deepwater variability in the Holocene epoch. Nature 422, 277.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Roig, F.A., Le-Quesne, C., Boninsegna, J.A., Briffa, K.R., Lara, A., Grudd, H., Jones, P.D., Villagrán, C., 2001. Climate variability 50,000 years ago in mid-latitude Chile as reconstructed from tree rings. Nature 410, 567–570.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Neward, T., Erickson, A.C., Crowell, T., Minerich, R., 2010. Professional F# 2.0. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA.
An edited book
Berry, M.W., Castellanos, M. (Eds.), 2008. Survey of Text Mining II: Clustering, Classification, and Retrieval. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, D., 2013. Archimedes in China: Archimedes and His Works in Chinese Literature of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, in: Knobloch, E., Komatsu, H., Liu, D. (Eds.), Seki, Founder of Modern Mathematics in Japan: A Commemoration on His Tercentenary. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp. 49–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. What Are The Issues Around The Use Of Human Foetal Tissue? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Telecommunications: Greater Involvement Needed by FCC in the Management and Oversight of the E-Rate Program (No. GAO-05-151). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Llerena, K., 2010. The social behaviors and emotional characteristics of individuals elevated on social anhedonia (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2017. Collins, Nearing a Mets Milestone, Is Still Enjoying the Journey. New York Times D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koenig, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Koenig, 2000; Tumer and Brainard, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tumer and Brainard, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Roig et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
AbbreviationToxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
ISSN (print)0041-008X

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