How to format your references using the Geothermics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geothermics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, V., 2015. Medicine: Expanding possibilities. Nature 528, S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Green, D.J., Alemseged, Z., 2012. Australopithecus afarensis scapular ontogeny, function, and the role of climbing in human evolution. Science 338, 514–517.
A journal article with 3 authors
Touboul, M., Puchtel, I.S., Walker, R.J., 2012. 182W evidence for long-term preservation of early mantle differentiation products. Science 335, 1065–1069.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nowack, M.K., Shirzadi, R., Dissmeyer, N., Dolf, A., Endl, E., Grini, P.E., Schnittger, A., 2007. Bypassing genomic imprinting allows seed development. Nature 447, 312–315.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Janovy, J., Esch, G.W., 2016. A Century of Parasitology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Heidelbaugh, J.J. (Ed.), 2016. Men’s Health in Primary Care, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Current Clinical Practice. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Biswas, A., Banerjee, B., Mandal, S., 2013. Optimal Sample Proportion for a Two-Treatment Clinical Trial in the Presence of Surrogate Endpoints, in: Ucinski, D., Atkinson, A.C., Patan, M. (Eds.), MODa 10 – Advances in Model-Oriented Design and Analysis: Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop in Model-Oriented Design and Analysis Held in Łagów Lubuski, Poland, June 10–14, 2013, Contributions to Statistics. Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, pp. 27–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geothermics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Folding Graphene Like Origami May Allow Us To Wear Sensors In Our Skin [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Mass Transit: Federal Participation in Transit Benefit Programs (No. RCED-93-163). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hernandez, A., 2012. Impact of the Child and Family Services Improvement Act of 2006 on monthly caseworker visits to children in Los Angeles County on California’s foster care system (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Jeffries, M.P., 2017. The Rage in Harlem, and Beyond. New York Times BR18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gewin, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Gewin, 2015; Green and Alemseged, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Green and Alemseged, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Nowack et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeothermics
ISSN (print)0375-6505
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

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