How to format your references using the Geothermics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geothermics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Soloveichik, G.L., 2014. Electrochemistry: Metal-free energy storage. Nature 505, 163–165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xu, Y., Chun, M.M., 2006. Dissociable neural mechanisms supporting visual short-term memory for objects. Nature 440, 91–95.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aitken, R.J., Koopman, P., Lewis, S.E.M., 2004. Seeds of concern. Nature 432, 48–52.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bello, A., Chand, A., Aviles, J., Soule, G., Auricchio, A., Kobinger, G.P., 2014. Novel adeno-associated viruses derived from pig tissues transduce most major organs in mice. Sci. Rep. 4, 6644.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Darbyshire, P., Hampton, D., 2014. Hedge Fund Modelling and Analysis Using MATLAB ®. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Voros, N.S., Rosti, A., Hübner, M. (Eds.), 2009. Dynamic System Reconfiguration in Heterogeneous Platforms: The MORPHEUS Approach, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Roederer, J., Zhang, H., 2014. Particle Fluxes, Distribution Functions and Violation of Invariants, in: Zhang, H. (Ed.), Dynamics of Magnetically Trapped Particles: Foundations of the Physics of Radiation Belts and Space Plasmas, Astrophysics and Space Science Library. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 89–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geothermics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Penguins Can Only Taste Salty And Sour [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Alternative Market Mechanisms for the Student Loan Program (No. GAO-02-84SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lewis, S.S., 2006. Identification of Stress-Responsive Genes in the Early Larval Stage of the Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. Sampling the Flavors of the City’s Cup. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Soloveichik, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Soloveichik, 2014; Xu and Chun, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xu and Chun, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Bello et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeothermics
ISSN (print)0375-6505
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

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