How to format your references using the Geothermics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geothermics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Telenti, A., 2014. HIV: The mixed blessing of interferon. Nature 511, 537–538.
A journal article with 2 authors
Arim, M., Barbosa, O., 2002. Humped pattern of diversity: fact or artifact? Science 297, 1763; discussion 1763.
A journal article with 3 authors
Foran, E., Weiner, S., Fine, M., 2013. Biogenic fish-gut calcium carbonate is a stable amorphous phase in the gilt-head seabream, Sparus aurata. Sci. Rep. 3, 1700.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bussey, D.B.J., Fristad, K.E., Schenk, P.M., Robinson, M.S., Spudis, P.D., 2005. Planetary science: constant illumination at the lunar north pole. Nature 434, 842.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paterson, S., Tobias, K., 2012. Atlas of ear diseases of the dog and cat. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,., West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Ritsner, M.S. (Ed.), 2011. Handbook of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders, Volume I: Conceptual Issues and Neurobiological Advances. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Lastovetsky, A., 2009. Model-Based Optimization of MPI Collective Operations for Computational Clusters, in: Ropo, M., Westerholm, J., Dongarra, J. (Eds.), Recent Advances in Parallel Virtual Machine and Message Passing Interface: 16th European PVM/MPI Users’ Group Meeting, Espoo, Finland, September 7-10, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 4–5.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geothermics.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Eating Peanuts Early in Life May Prevent Peanut Allergies [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. Telephone Communications: Bell Operating Company Entry Into New Lines of Business (No. RCED-86-138). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Betts, K., 2017. Ready, Steady, Putt! An Exhibition About the History of Miniature Golf in America (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George, N., 2011. Black-and-White Struggle With a Rosy Glow. New York Times AR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Telenti, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Arim and Barbosa, 2002; Telenti, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Arim and Barbosa, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Bussey et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeothermics
ISSN (print)0375-6505
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

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