How to format your references using the Geothermics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geothermics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davidson, E.H., 2010. Emerging properties of animal gene regulatory networks. Nature 468, 911–920.
A journal article with 2 authors
Joseph, S.B., Swanstrom, R., 2014. HIV/AIDS. A fitness bottleneck in HIV-1 transmission. Science 345, 136–137.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuhn, G., Hijri, M., Sanders, I.R., 2001. Evidence for the evolution of multiple genomes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Nature 414, 745–748.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Spencer, R.M.C., Zelaznik, H.N., Diedrichsen, J., Ivry, R.B., 2003. Disrupted timing of discontinuous but not continuous movements by cerebellar lesions. Science 300, 1437–1439.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rao, K.R., Bojkovic, Z.S., Milovanovic, D.A., 2005. Introduction to Multimedia Communications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Barbara, J.J. (Ed.), 2008. Handbook of Digital and Multimedia Forensic Evidence. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Buescher, N., Holzer, A., Weber, A., Katzenbeisser, S., 2016. Compiling Low Depth Circuits for Practical Secure Computation, in: Askoxylakis, I., Ioannidis, S., Katsikas, S., Meadows, C. (Eds.), Computer Security – ESORICS 2016: 21st European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, Heraklion, Greece, September 26-30, 2016, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 80–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geothermics.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Astronomers Might Have Discovered A New Type Of Cosmic Explosion [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1972. Administration of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 in the Michigan and Ohio State Departments of Education (No. 088953). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sidwell, M.D., 2017. Indirect measures as predictors of social skills observed through means of direct observation (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2003. Never-Never Land. New York Times 141.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Davidson, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Davidson, 2010; Joseph and Swanstrom, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Joseph and Swanstrom, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Spencer et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeothermics
ISSN (print)0375-6505
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

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