How to format your references using the Geothermics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geothermics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barbier, E.B., 2014. Economics: Account for depreciation of natural capital. Nature 515, 32–33.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lewcock, J.W., Reed, R.R., 2003. Neuroscience. ORs rule the roost in the olfactory system. Science 302, 2078–2079.
A journal article with 3 authors
Merritt, D., Ferrarese, L., Joseph, C.L., 2001. No supermassive black hole in M33? Science 293, 1116–1118.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mourka, A., Mazilu, M., Wright, E.M., Dholakia, K., 2013. Modal characterization using principal component analysis: application to Bessel, higher-order Gaussian beams and their superposition. Sci. Rep. 3, 1422.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chappell, D., 2008. The JCT Design and Build Contract 2005. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Zalevsky, Z. (Ed.), 2011. Super-Resolved Imaging: Geometrical and Diffraction Approaches, 1st ed, SpringerBriefs in Physics. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Leggett, J., 2016. Supporting Critical Civic Learning with Interactive Technology, in: Schnee, E., Better, A., Clark Cummings, M. (Eds.), Civic Engagement Pedagogy in the Community College: Theory and Practice, Education, Equity, Economy. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 71–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geothermics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2016. These Two New Exoplanets Might Be The Youngest Worlds We’ve Ever Found [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981. Efforts To Improve School Lunch Programs--Are They Paying Off? (No. CED-81-121). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lama, N., 2017. Optimized Veterinary Thermographic Image Classification using Support Vector Machines and Noise Mitigation (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2007. Justices to Hear Exxon’s Challenge to Punitive Damages. New York Times C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barbier, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Barbier, 2014; Lewcock and Reed, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lewcock and Reed, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Mourka et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeothermics
ISSN (print)0375-6505
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

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