How to format your references using the Geothermics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geothermics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carmody, J., 2001. Celebrating science. Nature 412, 383.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vecchi, G.A., Villarini, G., 2014. Atmosphere. Next season’s hurricanes. Science 343, 618–619.
A journal article with 3 authors
Babaev, E., Sudbø, A., Ashcroft, N.W., 2004. A superconductor to superfluid phase transition in liquid metallic hydrogen. Nature 431, 666–668.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Torchinsky, M.B., Garaude, J., Martin, A.P., Blander, J.M., 2009. Innate immune recognition of infected apoptotic cells directs T(H)17 cell differentiation. Nature 458, 78–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mamishev, A., Williams, S., 2010. Technical Writing for Teams. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Alvergne, A., Jenkinson, C., Faurie, C. (Eds.), 2016. Evolutionary Thinking in Medicine: From Research to Policy and Practice, Advances in the Evolutionary Analysis of Human Behaviour. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Sun, F., Bi, H., 2014. The Allocation of the Impedance Transformer Capacity of Passenger Dedicated Lines, in: Jia, L., Liu, Z., Qin, Y., Zhao, M., Diao, L. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Electrical and Information Technologies for Rail Transportation (EITRT2013)-Volume I, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 37–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geothermics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Hype Around Cannabis As A Treatment For Cancer Is Undeserved [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Financial Management Systems: HHS Faces Many Challenges in Implementing Its Unified Financial Management System (No. GAO-04-1089T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramakrishnan, L., 2009. Multi-level adaptation for performability in dynamic web service workflows (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M., Walsh, M.W., 2013. Buying a Gun? States Consider Insurance Rule. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carmody, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Carmody, 2001; Vecchi and Villarini, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vecchi and Villarini, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Torchinsky et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeothermics
ISSN (print)0375-6505
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

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