How to format your references using the Applied Acoustics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Acoustics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Li WKW. Macroecological patterns of phytoplankton in the northwestern North Atlantic Ocean. Nature 2002;419:154–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hachet O, Ephrussi A. Splicing of oskar RNA in the nucleus is coupled to its cytoplasmic localization. Nature 2004;428:959–63.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mempel TR, Henrickson SE, Von Andrian UH. T-cell priming by dendritic cells in lymph nodes occurs in three distinct phases. Nature 2004;427:154–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ishizuka K, Kamiya A, Oh EC, Kanki H, Seshadri S, Robinson JF, et al. DISC1-dependent switch from progenitor proliferation to migration in the developing cortex. Nature 2011;473:92–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beaumont WRC. Electricity in fish research and management. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Karthikeyan M. Practical Chemoinformatics. New Delhi: Springer India; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Parizi RB, Ferreira RR, Carro L, Moreira ÁF. Compiler Optimizations Do Impact the Reliability of Control-Flow Radiation Hardened Embedded Software. In: Schirner G, Götz M, Rettberg A, Zanella MC, Rammig FJ, editors. Embedded Systems: Design, Analysis and Verification: 4th IFIP TC 10 International Embedded Systems Symposium, IESS 2013, Paderborn, Germany, June 17-19, 2013. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Acoustics.

Blog post
Hale T. Why You Should Stack Copper Coins On Your Laptop. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer-Based Patient Records: Short-Term Progress Made, but Much Work Remains to Achieve a Two-Way Data Exchange Between VA and DOD Health Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salie A. Servant-minded leadership and work satisfaction in Islamic organizations: A correlational mixed study. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gabler E, Fink S, Yee V. A Preventable Descent Into Suffocating Chaos. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Acoustics
AbbreviationAppl. Acoust.
ISSN (print)0003-682X
ScopeAcoustics and Ultrasonics

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