How to format your references using the Topology and its Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Topology and its Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.J. Moore, RNA events. No end to nonsense, Science. 298 (2002) 370–371.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.R. Piperno, K.E. Stothert, Phytolith evidence for early Holocene Cucurbita domestication in southwest Ecuador, Science. 299 (2003) 1054–1057.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.P. Lapointe, T.G. Mason, I.I. Smalyukh, Shape-controlled colloidal interactions in nematic liquid crystals, Science. 326 (2009) 1083–1086.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Onodera, K. Motoyama, N. Tanaka, A. Ohyama, A. Okamatsu, T. Higashi, R. Kariya, S. Okada, H. Arima, Involvement of autophagy in antitumor activity of folate-appended methyl-β-cyclodextrin, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4417.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Aït-Kadi, M. Chouinard, S. Marcotte, D. Riopel, Sustainable Reverse Logistics Network, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
A.E. Hajek, T.R. Glare, M. O’Callaghan, eds., Use of Microbes for Control and Eradication of Invasive Arthropods, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Achten, M. van Eekelen, R. Plasmeijer, A. van Weelden, GEC: A Toolkit for Generic Rapid Prototyping of Type Safe Interactive Applications, in: V. Vene, T. Uustalu (Eds.), Advanced Functional Programming: 5th International School, AFP 2004, Tartu, Estonia, August 14 – 21, 2004, Revised Lectures, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005: pp. 210–244.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Topology and its Applications.

Blog post
E. Andrew, No, The CDC Did Not Apologize And Say The Flu Vaccine Doesn’t Work, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Resources, Community, and Economic Development Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.W. Deshotel, Enhancing Undergraduate Water Resources Engineering Education Using Data and Modeling Resources Situated in Real-world Ecosystems: Design Principles and Challenges for Scaling and Sustainability, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Kelly, Hyperion Using World’s Largest Mainsail, New York Times. (1998) 814.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTopology and its Applications
AbbreviationTopol. Appl.
ISSN (print)0166-8641
ScopeGeometry and Topology

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