How to format your references using the Topology and its Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Topology and its Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H.L. Fields, Neuroscience. More pain; less gain, Science. 345 (2014) 513–514.
A journal article with 2 authors
F. Lefèvre, F. Forget, Observed variations of methane on Mars unexplained by known atmospheric chemistry and physics, Nature. 460 (2009) 720–723.
A journal article with 3 authors
T.P. Newsome, N. Scaplehorn, M. Way, SRC mediates a switch from microtubule- to actin-based motility of vaccinia virus, Science. 306 (2004) 124–129.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. Khalifah, K.D. Nelson, R. Jin, Z.Q. Mao, Y. Liu, Q. Huang, X.P. Gao, A.P. Ramirez, R.J. Cava, Non-Fermi-liquid behaviour in La4Ru6O19, Nature. 411 (2001) 669–671.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Razik, Handbook of Asynchronous Machine with Variable Speed, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
A. Novales, Economic Growth: Theory and Numerical Solution Methods, 2nd ed. 2014, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Reinhart, J. Egbers, Integrating Ability Limitations into Assembly System Design, in: H.A. ElMaraghy (Ed.), Enabling Manufacturing Competitiveness and Economic Sustainability: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual Production (CARV2011), Montreal, Canada, 2-5 October 2011, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 35–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Topology and its Applications.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Bilateral gynandromorphs - animals that are quite literally, half male and half female, IFLScience. (2013). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: Management and Operation of FCC’s Public Reference Rooms, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Dair, Development of a nutrition-related curriculum for sustainable food waste management for foodservice operations, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Dinardo, Jim Gaffigan, on Traveling With Young Children, New York Times. (2015) TR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTopology and its Applications
AbbreviationTopol. Appl.
ISSN (print)0166-8641
ScopeGeometry and Topology

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