How to format your references using the Topology and its Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Topology and its Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Smaglik, The philanthropic principle, Nature. 431 (2004) 719.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Luan, M.O. Robbins, The breakdown of continuum models for mechanical contacts, Nature. 435 (2005) 929–932.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Zaimi, A. Ishak, I. Pop, Boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a nonlinearly permeable stretching/shrinking sheet in a nanofluid, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4404.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Barluenga, K.N. Stölting, W. Salzburger, M. Muschick, A. Meyer, Sympatric speciation in Nicaraguan crater lake cichlid fish, Nature. 439 (2006) 719–723.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Leuf, The Semantic Web, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
V. Sassone, ed., Foundations of Software Science and Computational Structures: 8th International Conference, FOSSACS 2005, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2005, Edinburgh, UK, April 4-8, 2005. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Boenink, Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s Disease: Searching for the Missing Link Between Biology and Clinic, in: M. Boenink, H. van Lente, E. Moors (Eds.), Emerging Technologies for Diagnosing Alzheimer’s Disease: Innovating with Care, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016: pp. 63–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Topology and its Applications.

Blog post
S. Luntz, There Are Still People Who Believe The Earth Is Flat In The USA, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Direct Student Loans: Analyses of Borrowers’ Use of the Income Contingent Repayment Option, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. Kim, Empathy in the Early Childhood Classroom: Exploring Teachers’ Perceptions, Understanding and Practices, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Paulson, Tomorrow’s Marquee Names, New York Times. (2017) AR26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTopology and its Applications
AbbreviationTopol. Appl.
ISSN (print)0166-8641
ScopeGeometry and Topology

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