How to format your references using the Topology and its Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Topology and its Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Cyranoski, China: from SARS to the stars, Nature. 426 (2003) 752–753.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.S. Shank, D. Margoliash, Sleep and sensorimotor integration during early vocal learning in a songbird, Nature. 458 (2009) 73–77.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. Takeuchi, Y. Yamanashi, N. Yoshikawa, Reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6354.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K.-A.H. Kubatko, K.B. Helean, A. Navrotsky, P.C. Burns, Stability of peroxide-containing uranyl minerals, Science. 302 (2003) 1191–1193.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.B. Kadane, D.A. Schum, A Probabilistic Analysis of the Sacco and Vanzetti Evidence: Kadane/A Probabilistic, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 1997.
An edited book
A. Bhansali, Clinical Rounds in Endocrinology: Volume I - Adult Endocrinology, Springer India, New Delhi, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Takuma, B. Techaumnat, Electric Field in High-Voltage Equipment, in: B. Techaumnat (Ed.), Electric Fields in Composite Dielectrics and Their Applications, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010: pp. 71–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Topology and its Applications.

Blog post
E. Andrew, IED Blasts Leave Lasting Damage On The Brains of Survivors, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: GSA Action Needs to Realize Benefits of Metropolitan Area Acquisition Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Carver, From under the blanket, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
G. Vecsey, U.S. and Algeria: Two Outsiders, but No Room for Both, New York Times. (2010) B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTopology and its Applications
AbbreviationTopol. Appl.
ISSN (print)0166-8641
ScopeGeometry and Topology

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