How to format your references using the Education Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Couzin, J. Social science. Friendship as a health factor. Science 2009, 323, 454–457.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hartl, F.U.; Hayer-Hartl, M. Molecular chaperones in the cytosol: from nascent chain to folded protein. Science 2002, 295, 1852–1858.
A journal article with 3 authors
Velarde, E.; Ezcurra, E.; Anderson, D.W. Seabird diets provide early warning of sardine fishery declines in the Gulf of California. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1332.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Abramson, J.; Smirnova, I.; Kasho, V.; Verner, G.; Kaback, H.R.; Iwata, S. Structure and mechanism of the lactose permease of Escherichia coli. Science 2003, 301, 610–615.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
King, M. Process Control; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2016; ISBN 9781119157779.
An edited book
Studies on Pediatric Disorders; Tsukahara, H., Kaneko, K., Eds.; Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice; Springer: New York, NY, 2014; ISBN 9781493906789.
A chapter in an edited book
Inselberg, A. A Visual Excursion into Parallel Coordinates (Extended Abstract). In Man-Machine Interactions 3; Gruca, D.A., Czachórski, T., Kozielski, S., Eds.; Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 43–52 ISBN 9783319023083.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education Sciences.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Orangutans Can Breastfeed For Up To A Record-Breaking Eight Years Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Research: Observations on the Small Business Technology Transfer Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson, K. Paid formal caregivers and caregiver burden: A quantitative study. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. Winning Teams Linked With Declining Grades. New York Times 2011, B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation Sciences
AbbreviationEduc. Sci. (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-7102

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