How to format your references using the Education Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kramers, J. Geology. The Smile of the Cheshire Cat. Science 2001, 293, 619–620.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pinaud, F.; Dahan, M. Biochemistry. Zooming into Live Cells. Science 2008, 320, 187–188.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sillanpää, M.A.; Park, J.I.; Simmonds, R.W. Coherent Quantum State Storage and Transfer between Two Phase Qubits via a Resonant Cavity. Nature 2007, 449, 438–442.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kosaka, H.; Inagaki, T.; Rikitake, Y.; Imamura, H.; Mitsumori, Y.; Edamatsu, K. Spin State Tomography of Optically Injected Electrons in a Semiconductor. Nature 2009, 457, 702–705.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abdullaeva, Z. Nano- and Biomaterials; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2017; ISBN 9783527807024.
An edited book
Marković, D. DSP Architecture Design Essentials; Brodersen, R.W., Ed.; Electrical Engineering Essentials; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2012; ISBN 9781441996596.
A chapter in an edited book
Rivera-Rubio, J.; Idrees, S.; Alexiou, I.; Hadjilucas, L.; Bharath, A.A. Mobile Visual Assistive Apps: Benchmarks of Vision Algorithm Performance. In New Trends in Image Analysis and Processing – ICIAP 2013: ICIAP 2013 International Workshops, Naples, Italy, September 9-13, 2013. Proceedings; Petrosino, A., Maddalena, L., Pala, P., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 30–40 ISBN 9783642411892.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education Sciences.

Blog post
Hale, T. Elephant Appears To Seek Human Help After Being Shot By Poachers Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office The Process for Identifying Needs and Establishing Requirements; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1974;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rooks, D.L. Science for All: Experiences and Outcomes of Students with Visual Impairment in a Guided Inquiry-Based Classroom. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona: Tucson, AZ, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman, W. Mayor Ousted In Colombia After Claims Of Bungling. New York Times 2013, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation Sciences
AbbreviationEduc. Sci. (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-7102

Other styles