How to format your references using the Education Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Markl, H. Research doesn’t denigrate humanity. Nature 2001, 412, 479–480.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dai, X.; Huang, N. Numerical simulation of drifting snow sublimation in the saltation layer. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6611.
A journal article with 3 authors
Riedel, I.H.; Kruse, K.; Howard, J. A self-organized vortex array of hydrodynamically entrained sperm cells. Science 2005, 309, 300–303.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Perdomo, D.; Baron, B.; Rojo-Domínguez, A.; Raynal, B.; England, P.; Guillén, N. The α-helical regions of KERP1 are important in Entamoeba histolytica adherence to human cells. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1171.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hens, H.S.L.C. Performance Based Building Design 2; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2012; ISBN 9783433602515.
An edited book
Heywang, W. Piezoelectricity: Evolution and Future of a Technology; Lubitz, K., Wersing, W., Eds.; Springer Series in Materials Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; Vol. 114; ISBN 9783540686804.
A chapter in an edited book
Verma, A.K.; Ajit, S.; Kumar, M. Dependability Models of Computer-Based Systems. In Dependability of Networked Computer-based Systems; Ajit, S., Kumar, M., Eds.; Springer Series in Reliability Engineering; Springer: London, 2011; pp. 59–104 ISBN 9780857293176.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education Sciences.

Blog post
Hale, T. Take A Trip With NASA’s Travel Posters For The New TRAPPIST-1 Exoplanets Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Reports Issued in June 1988; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1988;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodman, R.A. Casual factors that contribute to gender bias in career choice among junior high school age females. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. Next Chicago School Crisis: Pension Fund. New York Times 2012, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation Sciences
AbbreviationEduc. Sci. (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-7102

Other styles