How to format your references using the Education Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alley, R.B. The Key to the Past? Nature 2001, 409, 289.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bays, P.M.; Husain, M. Response to Comment on “Dynamic Shifts of Limited Working Memory Resources in Human Vision.” Science 2009, 323, 877.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pinker, R.T.; Zhang, B.; Dutton, E.G. Do Satellites Detect Trends in Surface Solar Radiation? Science 2005, 308, 850–854.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sun, Y.; Giebink, N.C.; Kanno, H.; Ma, B.; Thompson, M.E.; Forrest, S.R. Management of Singlet and Triplet Excitons for Efficient White Organic Light-Emitting Devices. Nature 2006, 440, 908–912.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Idelberger, K. The World of Footbridges; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2011; ISBN 9783433600849.
An edited book
Biotechnology and Biodiversity; Ahuja, M.R., Ramawat, K.G., Eds.; Sustainable Development and Biodiversity; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; Vol. 4; ISBN 9783319093802.
A chapter in an edited book
Taylor, I.J.; Harrison, A.B. Distributed Security Techniques. In From P2P and Grids to Services on the Web: Evolving Distributed Communities; Taylor, I.J., Harrison, A.B., Eds.; Computer Communications and Networks; Springer: London, 2009; pp. 61–77 ISBN 9781848001220.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education Sciences.

Blog post
Davis, J. Brutal Warfare May Help Explain Differences In Chimpanzee And Bonobo Societies Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Questions Designed To Aid Managers and Auditors in Assessing the ADP Planning Process; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1979;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moore, K.C. Coping Strategies for Adolescents Whose Parents Have Cancer: A Curriculum. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. His Mission: Beat Swords Into Baubles. New York Times 2013, E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation Sciences
AbbreviationEduc. Sci. (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-7102

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