How to format your references using the Education Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trounson, A. Obituary: Xiangzhong (Jerry) Yang (1959-2009). Nature 2009, 458, 161.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fukami, T.; Morin, P.J. Productivity-Biodiversity Relationships Depend on the History of Community Assembly. Nature 2003, 424, 423–426.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kahn, S.E.; Hull, R.L.; Utzschneider, K.M. Mechanisms Linking Obesity to Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes. Nature 2006, 444, 840–846.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kang, J.-E.; Lim, M.M.; Bateman, R.J.; Lee, J.J.; Smyth, L.P.; Cirrito, J.R.; Fujiki, N.; Nishino, S.; Holtzman, D.M. Amyloid-Beta Dynamics Are Regulated by Orexin and the Sleep-Wake Cycle. Science 2009, 326, 1005–1007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liebhart, R.; Chandramouli, D.; Wong, C.; Merkel, J. LTE for Public Safety; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2015; ISBN 9781118829851.
An edited book
Lessons Learned from Long-Term Soil Fertility Management Experiments in Africa; Bationo, A., Waswa, B., Kihara, J., Adolwa, I., Vanlauwe, B., Saidou, K., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2012; ISBN 9789400729377.
A chapter in an edited book
Hinow, P.; Radunskaya, A.E. The Mathematics of Drug Delivery. In Mathematical Models of Tumor-Immune System Dynamics; Eladdadi, A., Kim, P., Mallet, D., Eds.; Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics; Springer: New York, NY, 2014; pp. 109–123 ISBN 9781493917921.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Just 1/3 of Americans “believe” in the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Safety: Measuring How Safely Individual Airlines Operate; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1988;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amos, A.E. Perceptions of the Persistent: Academic Experiences of First Generation Community College Students. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K.; Bray, C. Held to Account. New York Times 2017, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation Sciences
AbbreviationEduc. Sci. (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-7102

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