How to format your references using the Topoi citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Topoi. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage N (2011) Fuel options: The ideal biofuel. Nature 474:S9-11
A journal article with 2 authors
Frieda KL, Block SM (2012) Direct observation of cotranscriptional folding in an adenine riboswitch. Science 338:397–400
A journal article with 3 authors
Bettencourt LMA, Samaniego H, Youn H (2014) Professional diversity and the productivity of cities. Sci Rep 4:5393
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schramke V, Sheedy DM, Denli AM, et al (2005) RNA-interference-directed chromatin modification coupled to RNA polymerase II transcription. Nature 435:1275–1279

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stahl S, Stenson C (2013) Introduction to Topology and Geometry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Buehler M, Iagnemma K, Singh S (eds) (2009) The DARPA Urban Challenge: Autonomous Vehicles in City Traffic. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Khan MA, Zaki Y (2011) Dynamic Spectrum Trade and Game-Theory Based Network Selection in LTE Virtualization Using Uniform Auctioning. In: Masip-Bruin X, Verchere D, Tsaoussidis V, Yannuzzi M (eds) Wired/Wireless Internet Communications: 9th IFIP TC 6 International Conference, WWIC 2011, Vilanova i la Geltrú, Spain, June 15-17, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 39–55

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Topoi.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) Earth Used To Be Orange. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983) A Bibliography of Documents Issued by the GAO on Matters Related to: ADP. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pulice SW (2013) The colonized child: Love, community, and wholeness as necessary elements of education. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch J (2016) Ready to Jump In If Needed (Not Likely). New York Times D1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Savage 2011; Frieda and Block 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Frieda and Block 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Schramke et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleTopoi
AbbreviationTopoi (Dordr.)
ISSN (print)0167-7411
ISSN (online)1572-8749

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