How to format your references using the Topoi citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Topoi. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mishra J (2014) Having it all. Science 345:1090
A journal article with 2 authors
Bintanja R, van der Linden EC (2013) The changing seasonal climate in the Arctic. Sci Rep 3:1556
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang B, Xu S, Wu L (2012) Intensified Arabian Sea tropical storms. Nature 489:E1-2; discussion E2-3
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jadzinsky PD, Calero G, Ackerson CJ, et al (2007) Structure of a thiol monolayer-protected gold nanoparticle at 1.1 A resolution. Science 318:430–433

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Spiegel R (2005) Psychopharmacology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Wheeler DS, Wong HR, Shanley TP (eds) (2014) Pediatric Critical Care Medicine: Volume 4: Peri-operative Care of the Critically Ill or Injured Child, 2nd ed. 2014. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Krč J, Lipovšek B, Topič M (2012) Light Management in Thin-Film Solar Cell. In: Cristóbal López AB, Martí Vega A, Luque López A (eds) Next Generation of Photovoltaics: New Concepts. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 95–129

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Topoi.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Men Who Want Power Over Women Likely To Have Poorer Mental Health: Study. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Governmentwide Initiatives: Critical Issues Facing the Next Federal Telecommunications System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ayer EW (2013) An N-gram enhanced learning classifier for Chinese character recognition. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2012) ‘Everyone Wants to See Zara.’ New York Times B13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mishra 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bintanja and van der Linden 2013; Mishra 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bintanja and van der Linden 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Jadzinsky et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleTopoi
AbbreviationTopoi (Dordr.)
ISSN (print)0167-7411
ISSN (online)1572-8749

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