How to format your references using the Topoi citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Topoi. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service RF (2008) Problem solved (sort of). Science 321:784–786
A journal article with 2 authors
LaFever L, Drummond-Barbosa D (2005) Direct control of germline stem cell division and cyst growth by neural insulin in Drosophila. Science 309:1071–1073
A journal article with 3 authors
Petrascheck M, Ye X, Buck LB (2007) An antidepressant that extends lifespan in adult Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 450:553–556
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gabor NM, Zhong Z, Bosnick K, et al (2009) Extremely efficient multiple electron-hole pair generation in carbon nanotube photodiodes. Science 325:1367–1371

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sexton D (2008) Trump University Branding 101. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Eastwood M, Miller W (eds) (2008) Symmetries and Overdetermined Systems of Partial Differential Equations. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Tan K-Y, Wu X, Seow-Choen F (2010) Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Reduction of Discomfort and Side-Effects of Surgery. In: Cho WCS (ed) Supportive Cancer Care with Chinese Medicine. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 95–107

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Topoi.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Google Launches “Street View” Of Great Barrier Reef. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Postsecondary Education: College and University Endowments Have Shown Long-Term Growth, While Size, Restrictions, and Distributions Vary. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weber C (2013) Exercise for older adults with dementia. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2008) See Food Grow. Eat It There. New York Times NJ9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Service 2008).
This sentence cites two references (LaFever and Drummond-Barbosa 2005; Service 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (LaFever and Drummond-Barbosa 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Gabor et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleTopoi
AbbreviationTopoi (Dordr.)
ISSN (print)0167-7411
ISSN (online)1572-8749

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