How to format your references using the Topoi citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Topoi. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butlin R (2006) Comment on “Transitions to asexuality result in excess amino acid substitutions.” Science 313:1389; author reply 1389
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson TD, Bar-Anan Y (2008) Psychology. The unseen mind. Science 321:1046–1047
A journal article with 3 authors
Dahal D, Liu S, Oeding J (2014) The carbon cycle and hurricanes in the United States between 1900 and 2011. Sci Rep 4:5197
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Boyington JC, Motyka SA, Schuck P, et al (2000) Crystal structure of an NK cell immunoglobulin-like receptor in complex with its class I MHC ligand. Nature 405:537–543

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lavi MR (2016) The Impact of IFRS on Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Wang Z (2010) MicroRNA Expression Detection Methods. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Soon CF, Youseffi M, Blagden N, et al (2010) Interactions of Cells with Elastic Cholesteryl Liquid Crystals. In: Dössel O, Schlegel WC (eds) World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, September 7 - 12, 2009, Munich, Germany: Vol. 25/10 Biomaterials, Cellular and Tussue Engineering, Artificial Organs. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 9–12

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Topoi.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) The Neural Basis For Psychosomatic Illness May Have Been Discovered. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) Major Factors Inhibit Expansion of the School Breakfast Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mocilnikar GE (2011) Playing with movies: An examination of the interactions between music and film in “Fantasie for horn and film.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B (2017) Missile Strike Signals a New Reality in Syria for Friends and Foes Alike. New York Times A13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butlin 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Butlin 2006; Wilson and Bar-Anan 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilson and Bar-Anan 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Boyington et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleTopoi
AbbreviationTopoi (Dordr.)
ISSN (print)0167-7411
ISSN (online)1572-8749

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