How to format your references using the Topoi citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Topoi. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wiseman H (2015) Quantum physics: Death by experiment for local realism. Nature 526:649–650
A journal article with 2 authors
Jiang J-H, John S (2014) Photonic architectures for equilibrium high-temperature Bose-Einstein condensation in dichalcogenide monolayers. Sci Rep 4:7432
A journal article with 3 authors
Cowen RK, Paris CB, Srinivasan A (2006) Scaling of connectivity in marine populations. Science 311:522–527
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Molkenthin N, Rehfeld K, Marwan N, Kurths J (2014) Networks from flows--from dynamics to topology. Sci Rep 4:4119

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paret D, Huon J-P (2017) Secure Connected Objects. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Gellersen H-W, Want R, Schmidt A (eds) (2005) Pervasive Computing: Third International Conference, PERVASIVE 2005, Munich, Germany, May 8-13, 2005. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Zaman R, Edmonson WW, Jha MK (2016) Designing a Remote In Situ Soil Moisture Sensor Network for Small Satellite Data Retrieval. In: Uzochukwu GA, Schimmel K, Kabadi V, et al. (eds) Proceedings of the 2013 National Conference on Advances in Environmental Science and Technology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 35–46

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Topoi.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) First Colour Images Of Ceres Revealed As Dawn Approaches. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976) Standard Budget Classifications--Proposed Functions and Subfunctions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Corbin-Staton AP (2009) Contexts of parental involvement: An interpretive synthesis of qualitative literature using the meta-interpretation method. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M (2017) Fixing Geffen Hall? Ask Ohio. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wiseman 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Jiang and John 2014; Wiseman 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jiang and John 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Molkenthin et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTopoi
AbbreviationTopoi (Dordr.)
ISSN (print)0167-7411
ISSN (online)1572-8749

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