# How to format your references using the Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (JMBA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, R. (2003). Researcher uncovers truth behind wartime security slur. Nature 421, 303.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hu, D.L., and Bush, J.W.M. (2005). Meniscus-climbing insects. Nature 437, 733–736.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kennedy, H.J., Crawford, A.C., and Fettiplace, R. (2005). Force generation by mammalian hair bundles supports a role in cochlear amplification. Nature 433, 880–883.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fragner, A., Göppl, M., Fink, J.M., Baur, M., Bianchetti, R., Leek, P.J., Blais, A., and Wallraff, A. (2008). Resolving vacuum fluctuations in an electrical circuit by measuring the Lamb shift. Science (New York, N.Y.) 322, 1357–1360.

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tibergien, M., and Pomering, R. (2011). Practice Made (More) Perfect. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zreiqat, H., Dunstan, C.R., and Rosen, V. (Eds.). (2015). A Tissue Regeneration Approach to Bone and Cartilage Repair. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Xu, G., and Xu, J. (2013). Solutions of $$\overline{{C}}$$ 20 Perturbation. In J. Xu (Ed.), Orbits: 2nd Order Singularity-free Solutions (pp. 69–86). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 12). Schrödinger’s Cat: Explained.

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Response to the Department of Education’s Request to Reconsider the High-Risk Designation of Federal Student Aid Programs (No. GAO-03-885R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oates, P.E. (2009). Leadership transactions impacting transformation (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, May 29). Success and Scandal Can Leave Everyone Weary. New York Times, p. SP7.

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dalton, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Dalton, 2003; Hu & Bush, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

• Two authors: (Hu & Bush, 2005)
• Three authors: (Kennedy et al., 2005)
• Four or more authors: (Fragner et al., 2008)