How to format your references using the Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gammon, K., 2014. Gene therapy: editorial control. Nature 515, S11-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Manne, A.S., Richels, R.G., 2001. An alternative approach to establishing trade-offs among greenhouse gases. Nature 410, 675–677.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sharma, B., Mandani, S., Sarma, T.K., 2013. Biogenic growth of alloys and core-shell nanostructures using urease as a nanoreactor at ambient conditions. Sci. Rep. 3, 2601.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rappuoli, R., Del Giudice, G., Nabel, G.J., Osterhaus, A.D.M.E., Robinson, R., Salisbury, D., Stöhr, K., Treanor, J.J., 2009. Public health. Rethinking influenza. Science 326, 50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Daïan, J.-F., 2014. Equilibrium and Transfer in Porous Media 2. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Grehn, F., Stamper, R. (Eds.), 2006. Glaucoma, Essentials in Ophthalmology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Stacul, F., 2006. Late Adverse Reactions to Intravascular Iodinated Contrast Media, in: Thomsen, H.S. (Ed.), Contrast Media: Safety Issues and ESUR Guidelines, Medical Radiology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 27–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017. How Mapping Teenagers’ Brains Has Helped Us Understand More About Schizophrenia [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. Federal Aviation Administration’s Acquisition of the Advanced Automation System (No. T-IMTEC-87-6). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Larson, E.B., 2014. Bahamian Quaternary geology and the global carbon budget (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, L., 2011. Harsh Realities. New York Times ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gammon, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gammon, 2014; Manne and Richels, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Manne and Richels, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Rappuoli et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleTicks and Tick-borne Diseases
AbbreviationTicks Tick Borne Dis.
ISSN (print)1877-959X
ScopeInsect Science
Infectious Diseases

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