How to format your references using the Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nadeau, J.H., 2003. Genetics. Modifying the message. Science 301, 927–928.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pack, C.C., Born, R.T., 2001. Temporal dynamics of a neural solution to the aperture problem in visual area MT of macaque brain. Nature 409, 1040–1042.
A journal article with 3 authors
London, A.J., Kimmelman, J., Emborg, M.E., 2010. Research ethics. Beyond access vs. protection in trials of innovative therapies. Science 328, 829–830.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pilania, G., Thijsse, B.J., Hoagland, R.G., Lazić, I., Valone, S.M., Liu, X.-Y., 2014. Revisiting the Al/Al₂O₃ interface: coherent interfaces and misfit accommodation. Sci. Rep. 4, 4485.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Feyel, P., 2013. Loop-shaping Robust Control. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Natarajan, R. (Ed.), 2014. Distributed Computing and Internet Technology: 10th International Conference, ICDCIT 2014, Bhubaneswar, India, February 6-9, 2014. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Iwahori, Y., Shibata, K., Kawanaka, H., Funahashi, K., Woodham, R.J., Adachi, Y., 2014. Shape from SEM Image Using Fast Marching Method and Intensity Modification by Neural Network, in: Tweedale, J.W., Jain, L.C. (Eds.), Recent Advances in Knowledge-Based Paradigms and Applications: Enhanced Applications Using Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 73–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2017. Water Found On One Of The First Exoplanets We Ever Discovered [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. HUD Information Systems: Improved Management Practices Needed to Control Integration Cost and Schedule (No. AIMD-99-25). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guzman, F., 2013. Terra Forming with You and Me (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C., 2014. In Estate Planning, Family Isn’t Always First. New York Times B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nadeau, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Nadeau, 2003; Pack and Born, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pack and Born, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Pilania et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTicks and Tick-borne Diseases
AbbreviationTicks Tick Borne Dis.
ISSN (print)1877-959X
ScopeInsect Science
Infectious Diseases

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