How to format your references using the Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Christensen, U.R., 2006. A deep dynamo generating Mercury’s magnetic field. Nature 444, 1056–1058.
A journal article with 2 authors
Valenzuela, S.O., Tinkham, M., 2006. Direct electronic measurement of the spin Hall effect. Nature 442, 176–179.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo, C., Wang, X., Liu, H., 2014. Controllability of time-delayed Boolean multiplex control networks under asynchronous stochastic update. Sci. Rep. 4, 7522.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mikucki, J.A., Pearson, A., Johnston, D.T., Turchyn, A.V., Farquhar, J., Schrag, D.P., Anbar, A.D., Priscu, J.C., Lee, P.A., 2009. A contemporary microbially maintained subglacial ferrous “ocean.” Science 324, 397–400.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Habib, M.A.R., 2010. Literary Criticism from Plato to the Present. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Tytler, R., Prain, V., Hubber, P., Waldrip, B. (Eds.), 2013. Constructing Representations to Learn in Science. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Roushdy, H.M., 2011. Higher Risk of Health Problems for Radio-Contaminated Food Consumption by Human Population Suffering Protein-Calorie Malnutrition and Environmental Chemical Pollution, in: Hefnawy, M. (Ed.), Advances in Food Protection: Focus on Food Safety and Defense, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 57–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. We Should Breed The Hunting Instinct Out Of Cats, Scientist Says [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Job Corps Costs and Outcomes (No. HRD-93-16R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Desgens-Martin, V., 2014. High prevalence of carcinoma in California sea lions Zalophus californianus: Evidence of a xenobiotic-induced carcinogenic cascade? (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pipher, M., 2014. Nebraska’s Lonely Progressives. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Christensen, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Christensen, 2006; Valenzuela and Tinkham, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Valenzuela and Tinkham, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Mikucki et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleTicks and Tick-borne Diseases
AbbreviationTicks Tick Borne Dis.
ISSN (print)1877-959X
ScopeInsect Science
Infectious Diseases

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