How to format your references using the Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Richmond, B., 2001. Neuroscience. Information coding. Science 294, 2493–2494.
A journal article with 2 authors
Irvine, R.F., Denton, R.M., 2011. Cell biology. Pyro-technic control of metabolism. Science 334, 770–771.
A journal article with 3 authors
Giovannetti, V., Lloyd, S., Maccone, L., 2004. Quantum-enhanced measurements: beating the standard quantum limit. Science 306, 1330–1336.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hare, B., Brown, M., Williamson, C., Tomasello, M., 2002. The domestication of social cognition in dogs. Science 298, 1634–1636.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwedt, G., 2013. Experimente rund um die Kunststoffe des Alltags. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
González, R.G., Hirsch, J.A., Lev, M.H., Schaefer, P.W., Schwamm, L.H. (Eds.), 2011. Acute Ischemic Stroke: Imaging and Intervention, 2nd ed. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ageev, A.A., 2008. A 3/2-Approximation for the Proportionate Two-Machine Flow Shop Scheduling with Minimum Delays, in: Kaklamanis, C., Skutella, M. (Eds.), Approximation and Online Algorithms: 5th International Workshop, WAOA 2007, Eilat, Israel, October 11-12, 2007. Revised Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 55–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Stomach Ulcer Bacteria Evolve To Outwit Immune System [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Election Reform: Nine States’ Experiences Implementing Federal Requirements for Computerized Statewide Voter Registration Lists (No. GAO-06-247). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fisher, J.D., 2015. A profile of the chief student affairs officers of the California State University system (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Haberman, M., Thrush, G., Schmidt, M.S., Baker, P., 2017. How Festering Anger at Comey Ended in Firing. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Richmond, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Irvine and Denton, 2011; Richmond, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Irvine and Denton, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Hare et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleTicks and Tick-borne Diseases
AbbreviationTicks Tick Borne Dis.
ISSN (print)1877-959X
ScopeInsect Science
Infectious Diseases

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