How to format your references using the Geoforum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoforum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Callaway, E., 2007. Dogs help sniff out genes. Nature 449, 514.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lucadamo, G., Medlin, D.L., 2003. Geometric origin of hexagonal close packing at a grain boundary in gold. Science 300, 1272–1275.
A journal article with 3 authors
Isaacs, F.J., Blake, W.J., Collins, J.J., 2005. Molecular biology. Signal processing in single cells. Science 307, 1886–1888.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Prosperi, M.C.F., Yin, L., Nolan, D.J., Lowe, A.D., Goodenow, M.M., Salemi, M., 2013. Empirical validation of viral quasispecies assembly algorithms: state-of-the-art and challenges. Sci. Rep. 3, 2837.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bilisoly, R., 2008. Practical Text Mining with Perl. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Jeglic, E.L., Calkins, C. (Eds.), 2016. Sexual Violence: Evidence Based Policy and Prevention. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Back, R.-J., Eriksson, J., Myreen, M., 2007. Testing and Verifying Invariant Based Programs in the SOCOS Environment, in: Gurevich, Y., Meyer, B. (Eds.), Tests and Proofs: First International Conference, TAP 2007, Zurich, Switzerland, February 12-13, 2007. Revised Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 61–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoforum.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016. Cybersecurity’s Weakest Link: Humans [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Space Surveillance: DOD and NASA Need Consolidated Requirements and a Coordinated Plan (No. NSIAD-98-42). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tasoff, A.J., 2017. Quantifying the Genetic Capacity of California Grunion (Leuresthes tenuis) to Adapt to Ocean Acidification (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J., 2017. In Open-Plan Offices, a Place for Inside-the-Box Thinking. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Callaway, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Callaway, 2007; Lucadamo and Medlin, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lucadamo and Medlin, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Prosperi et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoforum
ISSN (print)0016-7185
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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