How to format your references using the Geoforum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoforum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Javanainen, J., 2005. Physics. Bose-Einstein condensates interfere and survive. Science 307, 1883–1885.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, Z.L., Song, J., 2006. Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays. Science 312, 242–246.
A journal article with 3 authors
He, Y., Michaels, S.D., Amasino, R.M., 2003. Regulation of flowering time by histone acetylation in Arabidopsis. Science 302, 1751–1754.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Roy, D., Liston, D.R., Idone, V.J., Di, A., Nelson, D.J., Pujol, C., Bliska, J.B., Chakrabarti, S., Andrews, N.W., 2004. A process for controlling intracellular bacterial infections induced by membrane injury. Science 304, 1515–1518.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hornberg, A., 2017. Handbook of Machine and Computer Vision. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Loue, S., Sajatovic, M. (Eds.), 2012. Encyclopedia of Immigrant Health. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Joe, I., Yi, J.H., Sohn, K.-S., 2011. A Content-Based Caching Algorithm for Streaming Media Cache Servers in CDN, in: Kim, T.-H., Adeli, H., Grosky, W.I., Pissinou, N., Shih, T.K., Rothwell, E.J., Kang, B.-H., Shin, S.-J. (Eds.), Multimedia, Computer Graphics and Broadcasting: International Conference, MulGraB 2011, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2011, in Conjunction with GDC 2011, Jeju Island, Korea, December 8-10, 2011. Proceedings, Part I, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 28–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoforum.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. Have We Really Discovered A Huge Alien Megastructure Around A Star? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Hazardous Materials Rail Shipments: A Review of Emergency Response Information in Selected Train Documents (No. GAO-17-130). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marulkar, S., 2016. Indoor object localization system (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M., 1992. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats -- Clinton and Bush Compete to Be Champion of Change; Democrat Fights Perceptions of Bush Gain. New York Times 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Javanainen, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Javanainen, 2005; Wang and Song, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Song, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Roy et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoforum
ISSN (print)0016-7185
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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