How to format your references using the Geoforum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoforum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adam, D., 2002. Royal Institution’s director blasts scientific sexism. Nature 420, 453.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacob, Z., Shalaev, V.M., 2011. Physics. Plasmonics goes quantum. Science 334, 463–464.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pool, J.A., Lobkovsky, E., Chirik, P.J., 2004. Hydrogenation and cleavage of dinitrogen to ammonia with a zirconium complex. Nature 427, 527–530.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tamás, G., Lorincz, A., Simon, A., Szabadics, J., 2003. Identified sources and targets of slow inhibition in the neocortex. Science 299, 1902–1905.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Manuele, F.A., 2007. Advanced Safety Management Focusing on Z10 and Serious Injury Prevention. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Eraydin, A., Taşan-Kok, T. (Eds.), 2013. Resilience Thinking in Urban Planning, GeoJournal Library. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Shukla, V., Upreti, D.K., Bajpai, R., 2014. Lichen Diversity in Different Lichenogeographical Regions of India, in: D.k., U., Bajpai, R. (Eds.), Lichens to Biomonitor the Environment. Springer India, New Delhi, pp. 61–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoforum.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. Global Coral Bleaching Event Declared [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1970. Administration of Federal Support of Shore Facilities and Vessels for Research Activities at Oceanographic Institutions (No. B-169941). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sweeney, D.L., 2009. Learning in human -dolphin interactions at zoological facilities (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G., 2017. Captain America Will Fight Evil Again. New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adam, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Adam, 2002; Jacob and Shalaev, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jacob and Shalaev, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Tamás et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoforum
ISSN (print)0016-7185
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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