How to format your references using the Geoforum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoforum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hope, T.J., 2015. VIROLOGY. Visualizing trans-infection. Science 350, 511–512.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cai, H.N., Shen, P., 2001. Effects of cis arrangement of chromatin insulators on enhancer-blocking activity. Science 291, 493–495.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cerritelli, S.M., Chon, H., Crouch, R.J., 2011. Molecular biology. A new twist for topoisomerase. Science 332, 1510–1511.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Volkova, V.V., Lu, Z., Lanzas, C., Scott, H.M., Gröhn, Y.T., 2013. Modelling dynamics of plasmid-gene mediated antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria using stochastic differential equations. Sci. Rep. 3, 2463.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vanbésien, O., 2012. Artificial Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bebis, G., Boyle, R., Parvin, B., Koracin, D., Pavlidis, I., Feris, R., McGraw, T., Elendt, M., Kopper, R., Ragan, E., Ye, Z., Weber, G. (Eds.), 2015. Advances in Visual Computing: 11th International Symposium, ISVC 2015, Las Vegas, NV, USA, December 14-16, 2015, Proceedings, Part I, 1st ed. 2015. ed, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Gonzalez, D., Elias, M., Chabrière, E., 2014. The DING Family of Phosphate Binding Proteins in Inflammatory Diseases, in: Camps, J. (Ed.), Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Non-Communicable Diseases - Molecular Mechanisms and Perspectives in Therapeutics, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 27–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoforum.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. California Moves to Ban Religious and Personal Vaccine Exemptions [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Year 2000 Computing: EFT 99 Is Not Expected to Affect Year 2000 Remediation Efforts (No. AIMD-98-272R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holmberg, M.B., 2014. Alternative nitrogen for subsequent southern switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production using cool-season legumes (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz, M., White, R., 2013. Tractor-Trailer Kills 8-Year-Old Boy Walking to School in Queens. New York Times A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hope, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Cai and Shen, 2001; Hope, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cai and Shen, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Volkova et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoforum
ISSN (print)0016-7185
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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