How to format your references using the Geoforum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoforum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Quirk, T., 2012. Writers should not fear jargon. Nature 487, 407.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams, W.M., Ceci, S.J., 2005. Recruiters and academia. Academics worry about hiring “undiscovered geniuses.” Nature 435, 534.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brad Adams, J., Mann, M.E., Ammann, C.M., 2003. Proxy evidence for an El Niño-like response to volcanic forcing. Nature 426, 274–278.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Habenicht, A., Olapinski, M., Burmeister, F., Leiderer, P., Boneberg, J., 2005. Jumping nanodroplets. Science 309, 2043–2045.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fredriksson, H., Åkerlind, U., 2012. Solidification and Crystallization Processing in Metals and Alloys. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Chakrabarti, B.K., Bardhan, K.K., Sen, A.K. (Eds.), 2009. Quantum and Semi-classical Percolation and Breakdown in Disordered Solids, Lecture Notes in Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Spannagel, D., 2016. Strategies Against Poverty and Social Exclusion in a Corporatist–Conservative Local Welfare System: The Dortmund Consensus, in: Johansson, H., Panican, A. (Eds.), Combating Poverty in Local Welfare Systems. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 105–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoforum.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Researcher Stumbles Across Oldest Snake Fossils Ever Found In Museum [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Transfer Students: Postsecondary Institutions Could Promote More Consistent Consideration of Coursework by Not Basing Determinations on Accreditation (No. GAO-06-22). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kirk, C., 2017. Early Maladaptive Attachment Styles and Psychological Aggression in Romantic Relationships: A Content Analysis, 2006-2016 (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B., 2016. Don’t Let a Dallas Receiver’s Size Fool You. New York Times SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Quirk, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Quirk, 2012; Williams and Ceci, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Williams and Ceci, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Habenicht et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoforum
ISSN (print)0016-7185
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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