How to format your references using the Children citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Children. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Korgel, B.A. Materials Science. Nanosprings Take Shape. Science 2005, 309, 1683–1684.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fisher, B.; Costanza, R. Environmental Policy: Regional Commitment to Reducing Emissions. Nature 2005, 438, 301–302.
A journal article with 3 authors
Storch, D.; Keil, P.; Jetz, W. Universal Species-Area and Endemics-Area Relationships at Continental Scales. Nature 2012, 488, 78–81.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jiang, Y.; Choi, W.H.; Lee, J.H.; Han, D.H.; Kim, J.H.; Chung, Y.-S.; Kim, S.H.; Lee, M.J. A Neurostimulant Para-Chloroamphetamine Inhibits the Arginylation Branch of the N-End Rule Pathway. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6344.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stokes, D.J. Principles and Practice of Variable Pressure/Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (VP-ESEM); John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2008; ISBN 9780470758731.
An edited book
Service-Oriented Computing: Agents, Semantics, and Engineering: AAMAS 2007 International Workshop, SOCASE 2007, Honolulu, HI, USA, May 14, 2007. Proceedings; Huang, J., Kowalczyk, R., Maamar, Z., Martin, D., Müller, I., Stoutenburg, S., Sycara, K.P., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; Vol. 4504; ISBN 9783540726180.
A chapter in an edited book
Heimer, G.; Rivlin, M.; Israel, Z.; Bergman, H. Synchronizing Activity of Basal Ganglia and Pathophysiology of Parkinson’s Disease. In Parkinson’s Disease and Related Disorders; Riederer, P., Reichmann, H., Youdim, M.B.H., Gerlach, M., Eds.; Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementa; Springer: Vienna, 2006; pp. 17–20 ISBN 9783211289273.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Children.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Can You Pass A High School Health Class Quiz On Nutrition? Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office School Meal Programs: Few Outbreaks of Foodborne Illness Reported; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kalafut, A.J. Proactive Cyberfraud Detection through Infrastructure Analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Abortion Opponents Win Dispute. New York Times 2006, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChildren
AbbreviationChildren (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-9067

Other styles