How to format your references using the Children citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Children. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nowak, M.A. Generosity: A winner’s advice. Nature 2008, 456, 579.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson, R.T.; Lovley, D.R. Hexadecane decay by methanogenesis. Nature 2000, 404, 722–723.
A journal article with 3 authors
Samokhvalov, I.M.; Samokhvalova, N.I.; Nishikawa, S.-I. Cell tracing shows the contribution of the yolk sac to adult haematopoiesis. Nature 2007, 446, 1056–1061.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hutchinson, J.R.; Famini, D.; Lair, R.; Kram, R. Biomechanics: Are fast-moving elephants really running? Nature 2003, 422, 493–494.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Flaus, J.-M. Risk Analysis; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ USA, 2013; ISBN 9781118790021.
An edited book
Measuring Roots: An Updated Approach; Mancuso, S., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; ISBN 9783642220661.
A chapter in an edited book
Lo, C.-W.; Lin, C.-W.; Chen, Y.-C.; Yu, J.-Y. On Peer Selection and Protection for Reliable Peer-to-Peer Video Streaming. In Advances in Multimedia Information Processing - PCM 2009: 10th Pacific Rim Conference on Multimedia, Bangkok, Thailand, December 15-18, 2009 Proceedings; Muneesawang, P., Wu, F., Kumazawa, I., Roeksabutr, A., Liao, M., Tang, X., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; pp. 65–76 ISBN 9783642104664.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Children.

Blog post
Hale, T. Meet Bowie, The Rescue Koala With Different Colored Eyes Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office National Airspace System: Reauthorizing FAA Provides Opportunities and Options to Address Challenges; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2003;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sundell, M. From fine art to fashion: Man Ray’s ambivalent avant-garde. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University: New York, NY, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. Arab Nations Present Demands to Qatar, Including That It Close Down Al Jazeera. New York Times 2017, A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChildren
AbbreviationChildren (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-9067

Other styles