How to format your references using the Injury Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Injury Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johns A. The birth of scientific reading. Nature. 2001 Jan 18;409(6818):287.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rowley JD, Blumenthal T. Medicine. The cart before the horse. Science. 2008 Sep 5;321(5894):1302–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Paraschiv-Ionescu A, Buchser E, Aminian K. Unraveling dynamics of human physical activity patterns in chronic pain conditions. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:2019.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bi Y-G, Feng J, Liu Y-S, Li Y-F, Chen Y, Zhang X-L, et al. Surface plasmon-polariton mediated red emission from organic light-emitting devices based on metallic electrodes integrated with dual-periodic corrugation. Sci. Rep. 2014 Nov 19;4:7108.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cicek V. Cathodic Protection. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Bell KM. Learn to Tango with D. Igesund LI, Kelly S, Parker M, editors. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Shukla V, Upreti DK, Bajpai R. Ecosystem Monitoring. In: D.k. U, Bajpai R, editors. Lichens to Biomonitor the Environment. New Delhi: Springer India; 2014. p. 97–170.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Injury Epidemiology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. We Just Got An Amazing View Of A Huge Lava Lake On Jupiter’s Moon Io [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Expenditures by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for Relocation of Offices and Related Alterations to Buildings in Michoud, Lousiana. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972 Nov. Report No.: B-177038.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hausmann RC. Organizing Ecosystems for Social Innovation: The Relationality of Contexts and Mechanisms in a Social Entrepreneurship Network [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Nassau Comptroller Warns County on Finances. New York Times. 2007 Mar 11;LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Johns 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Johns 2001; Rowley and Blumenthal 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rowley and Blumenthal 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Bi et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInjury Epidemiology
AbbreviationInj. Epidemiol.
ISSN (online)2197-1714

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