How to format your references using the Injury Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Injury Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowles S. Warriors, levelers, and the role of conflict in human social evolution. Science. 2012 May 18;336(6083):876–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jin J, MacMillan DWC. Alcohols as alkylating agents in heteroarene C-H functionalization. Nature. 2015 Sep 3;525(7567):87–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Giulini A, Wang J, Jackson D. Control of phyllotaxy by the cytokinin-inducible response regulator homologue ABPHYL1. Nature. 2004 Aug 26;430(7003):1031–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kiers ET, Duhamel M, Beesetty Y, Mensah JA, Franken O, Verbruggen E, et al. Reciprocal rewards stabilize cooperation in the mycorrhizal symbiosis. Science. 2011 Aug 12;333(6044):880–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Klugman SA, Panjer HH, Willmot GE. Loss Models: Further Topics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Ali M, Esposito F, editors. Innovations in Applied Artificial Intelligence: 18th International Conference on Industrial and Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems, IEA/AIE 2005, Bari, Italy, June 22-24, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang Y. Characteristics of Mobile Teaching and Learning. In: Zhang Y (aimee), editor. Handbook of Mobile Teaching and Learning. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. p. 11–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Injury Epidemiology.

Blog post
Andrews R. Miniature Brains Grown Quickly And Cheaply [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Gallaudet College and the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985 Jun. Report No.: 128886.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klein J. Mississippian Space and Place: A Geographical Study of Archaeological Site Data in the American Bottom [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pennington B, Belson K. Panthers’ Newton Stands Out in a Quieter Week of Player Protests. New York Times. 2017 Oct 2;D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bowles 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bowles 2012; Jin and MacMillan 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jin and MacMillan 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Kiers et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleInjury Epidemiology
AbbreviationInj. Epidemiol.
ISSN (online)2197-1714

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