How to format your references using the Injury Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Injury Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ferry DK. Applied physics. Ohm’s law in a quantum world. Science. 2012 Jan 6;335(6064):45–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prather MJ, Hsu J. Coupling of nitrous oxide and methane by global atmospheric chemistry. Science. 2010 Nov 12;330(6006):952–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ehrlich PR, Kareiva PM, Daily GC. Securing natural capital and expanding equity to rescale civilization. Nature. 2012 Jun 6;486(7401):68–73.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li B, Zhao J, Onda K, Jordan KD, Yang J, Petek H. Ultrafast interfacial proton-coupled electron transfer. Science. 2006 Mar 10;311(5766):1436–40.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tadros TF. Colloids in Paints. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2010.
An edited book
Miville ML, Ferguson AD, editors. Handbook of Race-Ethnicity and Gender in Psychology. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Verweij A. Perspective in a box. In: García-Salgado T, editor. Architecture, Mathematics and Perspective. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2010. p. 47–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Injury Epidemiology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Mystery Of The “Megastructure Star” Deepens [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Direct Student Loans: Selected Characteristics of Participating Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Mar. Report No.: T-HEHS-95-123.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harris RH. Comparing the Effects of Traditional Face-to-face, Technology-Based, and Blended Instructional Strategies in a Post-Secondary Spanish Language Learning Environment [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis A, Taylor K. After an Introduction by de Blasio, a Brooklyn Hospital Hired His Wife. New York Times. 2013 Oct 10;A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ferry 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Ferry 2012; Prather and Hsu 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Prather and Hsu 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInjury Epidemiology
AbbreviationInj. Epidemiol.
ISSN (online)2197-1714

Other styles