How to format your references using the Injury Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Injury Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rind D. The Sun’s role in climate variations. Science. 2002 Apr 26;296(5568):673–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matsuoka T, Shimizu K. Direct observation of a pressure-induced metal-to-semiconductor transition in lithium. Nature. 2009 Mar 12;458(7235):186–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gridi-Papp M, Rand AS, Ryan MJ. Animal communication: complex call production in the túngara frog. Nature. 2006 May 4;441(7089):38.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Heathman S, Haire RG, Le Bihan T, Lindbaum A, Idiri M, Normile P, et al. A high-pressure structure in curium linked to magnetism. Science. 2005 Jul 1;309(5731):110–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Xing B, Vecitis CD, Senesi N. Engineered Nanoparticles and the Environment: Biophysicochemical Processes and Toxicity. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
D’Alessandro C. Cities and Spaces of Leadership: A Geographical Perspective. Léautier F, editor. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Bradshaw HB. Other Cannabimimetic Lipid Signaling Molecules. In: Köfalvi A, editor. Cannabinoids and the Brain. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008. p. 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Injury Epidemiology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. “Zebra Stripes” Spotted In Space Around Earth [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Authority To Waive Claims by District of Columbia Against Employee or Former Employee. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979 Mar. Report No.: B-192020.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watterson T. Changes in Attitudes and Behaviors Toward Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Social Support for Middle School Students Using the AFIT App as a Supplement to Instruction in a Physical Education Class [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon MR, Schmitt E. Wrestling With North Korea, Trump Finds Perilous Options. New York Times. 2017 Aug 11;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rind 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Matsuoka and Shimizu 2009; Rind 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Matsuoka and Shimizu 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Heathman et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInjury Epidemiology
AbbreviationInj. Epidemiol.
ISSN (online)2197-1714

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