How to format your references using the Injury Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Injury Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cole-Turner R. Genome-sequencing anniversary. What defines us? Science. 2011 Feb 4;331(6017):548.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baudisch A, Vaupel JW. Evolution. Getting to the root of aging. Science. 2012 Nov 2;338(6107):618–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kiss IZ, Zhai Y, Hudson JL. Emerging coherence in a population of chemical oscillators. Science. 2002 May 31;296(5573):1676–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Muller DA, Kourkoutis LF, Murfitt M, Song JH, Hwang HY, Silcox J, et al. Atomic-scale chemical imaging of composition and bonding by aberration-corrected microscopy. Science. 2008 Feb 22;319(5866):1073–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reid R, Fraser-King G, Schwaderer WD. Data Lifecycles. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Steiger H-J. Microsurgical Brain Aneurysms: Illustrated Concepts and Cases. Etminan N, Hänggi D, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Catalano C, Napoli A, Marincola BC. Sindromi aortiche acute e patologia traumatica. In: Napoli A, Marincola BC, editors. L’angio-TC dell’aorta. Milano: Springer; 2012. p. 11–20.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Injury Epidemiology.

Blog post
Luntz S. How To Get That Last Drop Of Shampoo Out Of The Bottle [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Health Information Technology: HHS Is Pursuing Efforts to Advance Nationwide Implementation, but Has Not Yet Completed a National Strategy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Feb. Report No.: GAO-08-499T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trinooson TE. CFD investigations of a round jet with coil insert in crossflow [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Because Curlers Can Pull Muscles, Too. New York Times. 2014 Feb 14;B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cole-Turner 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Baudisch and Vaupel 2012; Cole-Turner 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baudisch and Vaupel 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Muller et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInjury Epidemiology
AbbreviationInj. Epidemiol.
ISSN (online)2197-1714

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