How to format your references using the Injury Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Injury Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kotliar G. Physics. Driving the electron over the edge. Science. 2003 Oct 3;302(5642):67–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Braun-Munzinger P, Stachel J. The quest for the quark-gluon plasma. Nature. 2007 Jul 19;448(7151):302–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prakash M, Quéré D, Bush JWM. Surface tension transport of prey by feeding shorebirds: the capillary ratchet. Science. 2008 May 16;320(5878):931–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rizzini L, Favory J-J, Cloix C, Faggionato D, O’Hara A, Kaiserli E, et al. Perception of UV-B by the Arabidopsis UVR8 protein. Science. 2011 Apr 1;332(6025):103–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bisswanger H. Enzyme Kinetics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2017.
An edited book
Agarwal R, Selen W, Roos G, Green R, editors. The Handbook of Service Innovation. London: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Raad B, De Georgia M. Perspectives and Approach to Stroke Prevention and Therapy. In: Corrigan ML, Escuro AA, Kirby DF, editors. Handbook of Clinical Nutrition and Stroke. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2013. p. 47–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Injury Epidemiology.

Blog post
Hale T. 4000-Year-Old Funeral Garden Unearthed In Egypt [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. HEW’s Refund Policies of Basic Grants and Other Student Aid Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976 Mar. Report No.: 089573.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Scharf MT. Comparing Student Cumulative Course Grades, Attrition, and Satisfaction in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Environments [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. Ruminations on the Inquiring Mind. New York Times. 2017 Jul 16;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kotliar 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Braun-Munzinger and Stachel 2007; Kotliar 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Braun-Munzinger and Stachel 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Rizzini et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleInjury Epidemiology
AbbreviationInj. Epidemiol.
ISSN (online)2197-1714

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