How to format your references using the Injury Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Injury Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dupont L. Ecology. The human factor. Science. 2012 Mar 9;335(6073):1180–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maheswaran S, Haber DA. Cell fate: Transition loses its invasive edge. Nature. 2015 Nov 26;527(7579):452–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eccleston A, Cesari F, Skipper M. Transcription and epigenetics. Nature. 2013 Oct 24;502(7472):461.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Narymbetov B, Omerzu A, Kabanov VV, Tokumoto M, Kobayashi H, Mihailovic D. Origin of ferromagnetic exchange interactions in a fullerene-organic compound. Nature. 2000 Oct 19;407(6806):883–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Owen JS, Fiedler-Kelly J. Introduction to Population Pharmacokinetic / Pharmacodynamic Analysis with Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Tankut AT, editor. Earthquakes and Tsunamis: Civil Engineering Disaster Mitigation Activities Implementing Millennium Development Goals. 1st ed. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Couvidat S. Solar Oscillations: Current Trends. In: Miralles MP, Sánchez Almeida J, editors. The Sun, the Solar Wind, and the Heliosphere. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. p. 31–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Injury Epidemiology.

Blog post
Taub B. The Amount Of Sex You Have May Determine How Vulnerable You Are To Drug Addiction. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Data: Information on Data Storage Technologies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Sep. Report No.: IMTEC-90-88FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lin Y-S. Virtuoso piano transcriptions of Stephen Hough and Marc-André Hamelin: Lisztian tradition in the twenty-first century [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Sharing a Love Affair With Each Other and Artists. New York Times. 2003 Nov 17;F33.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dupont 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Dupont 2012; Maheswaran and Haber 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maheswaran and Haber 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Narymbetov et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleInjury Epidemiology
AbbreviationInj. Epidemiol.
ISSN (online)2197-1714

Other styles