How to format your references using the Injury Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Injury Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Silver LM. What are clones? Nature. 2001 Jul 5;412(6842):21.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jaeger J-J, Marivaux L. Paleontology. Shaking the earliest branches of anthropoid primate evolution. Science. 2005 Oct 14;310(5746):244–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang J, Ewing RC, Becker U. Average structure and local configuration of excess oxygen in UO(2+x). Sci. Rep. 2014 Mar 19;4:4216.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lavallo V, Canac Y, Donnadieu B, Schoeller WW, Bertrand G. Cyclopropenylidenes: from interstellar space to an isolated derivative in the laboratory. Science. 2006 May 5;312(5774):722–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saguet P. Numerical Analysis in Electromagnetics. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Gentili G. The Median Nerve: Motor Conduction Studies. Di Napoli M, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Abukwaik H, Abujayyab M, Rombach D. Towards Seamless Analysis of Software Interoperability: Automatic Identification of Conceptual Constraints in API Documentation. In: Tekinerdogan B, Zdun U, Babar A, editors. Software Architecture: 10th European Conference, ECSA 2016, Copenhagen, Denmark, November 28 -- December 2, 2016, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 67–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Injury Epidemiology.

Blog post
Andrew D. How Far Off Is A Blood Test For Alzheimer’s Disease? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Safety: Effectiveness of State .08 Blood Alcohol Laws. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Jun. Report No.: RCED-99-179.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herrera K. Improved transportation for older adult volunteers: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM. Writing Partner ‘Flabbergasted’ By Accusations Against Halperin. New York Times. 2017 Oct 31;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Silver 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Jaeger and Marivaux 2005; Silver 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jaeger and Marivaux 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Lavallo et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInjury Epidemiology
AbbreviationInj. Epidemiol.
ISSN (online)2197-1714

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