How to format your references using the Thinking Skills and Creativity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Thinking Skills and Creativity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Valentine, D. L. (2013). Microbiology: intraterrestrial lifestyles. Nature, 496(7444), 176–177.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sanderson, W. C., & Scherbov, S. (2005). Average remaining lifetimes can increase as human populations age. Nature, 435(7043), 811–813.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kilb, D., Gomberg, J., & Bodin, P. (2000). Triggering of earthquake aftershocks by dynamic stresses. Nature, 408(6812), 570–574.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Maeda, K., Benetti, S., Stritzinger, M., Röpke, F. K., Folatelli, G., Sollerman, J., Taubenberger, S., Nomoto, K., Leloudas, G., Hamuy, M., Tanaka, M., Mazzali, P. A., & Elias-Rosa, N. (2010). An asymmetric explosion as the origin of spectral evolution diversity in type Ia supernovae. Nature, 466(7302), 82–85.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lad, B. K., Shrivastava, D., & Kulkarni, M. S. (2016). Machine Tool Reliability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rugini, E., Baldoni, L., Muleo, R., & Sebastiani, L. (Eds.). (2016). The Olive Tree Genome. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Puviani, M., Cabri, G., Capodieci, N., & Leonardi, L. (2015). Building Self-adaptive Systems by Adaptation Patterns Integrated into Agent Methodologies. In B. Duval, J. van den Herik, S. Loiseau, & J. Filipe (Eds.), Agents and Artificial Intelligence: 7th International Conference, ICAART 2015, Lisbon, Portugal, January 10-12, 2015, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 58–75). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Thinking Skills and Creativity.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2017, February 2). Think Swearing Isn’t Big Or Clever? Think Again. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Modernization Program (RCED-92-136BR). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Levy, M. R. (2009). Visual perception and Gestalt grouping in the landscape: Are Gestalt grouping prinicples reliable indicators of visual preference? [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, May 2). Clouds Part Long Enough For a Memorable Ride. New York Times, SP9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Valentine, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Sanderson & Scherbov, 2005; Valentine, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sanderson & Scherbov, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Kilb et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Maeda et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleThinking Skills and Creativity
AbbreviationThink. Skills Creat.
ISSN (print)1871-1871

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