How to format your references using the Thinking Skills and Creativity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Thinking Skills and Creativity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balch, A. L. (2011). Chemistry. H₂O in a desert of carbon atoms. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6042), 531–532.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jang, H.-J., & Cho, W.-J. (2014). Performance enhancement of capacitive-coupling dual-gate ion-sensitive field-effect transistor in ultra-thin-body. Scientific Reports, 4, 5284.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bania, T. M., Rood, R. T., & Balser, D. S. (2002). The cosmological density of baryons from observations of 3He+ in the Milky Way. Nature, 415(6867), 54–57.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
de Sherbinin, A., Castro, M., Gemenne, F., Cernea, M. M., Adamo, S., Fearnside, P. M., Krieger, G., Lahmani, S., Oliver-Smith, A., Pankhurst, A., Scudder, T., Singer, B., Tan, Y., Wannier, G., Boncour, P., Ehrhart, C., Hugo, G., Pandey, B., & Shi, G. (2011). Climate change. Preparing for resettlement associated with climate change. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6055), 456–457.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Golio, M. (2006). Engineering Your Retirement. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nof, S. Y. (2015). Revolutionizing Collaboration through e-Work, e-Business, and e-Service (J. Ceroni, W. Jeong, & M. Moghaddam, Eds.; Vol. 2). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ignaciuk, P., & Bartoszewicz, A. (2013). Flow Control in a Single-Source Discrete-Time System. In A. Bartoszewicz (Ed.), Congestion Control in Data Transmission Networks: Sliding Mode and Other Designs (pp. 87–196). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Thinking Skills and Creativity.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, June 7). Hologram Projectors For Your Smartphone Could Be Close. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites: Cost Increases Trigger Review and Place Program’s Direction on Hold (GAO-06-573T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yamada, T. (2008). Comparison of cognitively diagnostic adaptive testing algorithms [Doctoral dissertation]. Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2012, January 5). A Chicer, Cheaper New Outlook. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Balch, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Balch, 2011; Jang & Cho, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jang & Cho, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Bania et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (de Sherbinin et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleThinking Skills and Creativity
AbbreviationThink. Skills Creat.
ISSN (print)1871-1871

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