How to format your references using the Thinking Skills and Creativity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Thinking Skills and Creativity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kalirai, J. S. (2012). The age of the Milky Way inner halo. Nature, 486(7401), 90–92.
A journal article with 2 authors
Evans, J. A., & Foster, J. G. (2011). Metaknowledge. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6018), 721–725.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pornillos, O., Ganser-Pornillos, B. K., & Yeager, M. (2011). Atomic-level modelling of the HIV capsid. Nature, 469(7330), 424–427.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Smith, D. E., Zuber, M. T., Sun, X., Neumann, G. A., Cavanaugh, J. F., McGarry, J. F., & Zagwodzki, T. W. (2006). Two-way laser link over interplanetary distance. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5757), 53.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ferrant, J.-L., Gilson, M., Jobert, S., Mayer, M., Montini, L., Ouellette, M., Rodrigues, S., & Ruffini, S. (2013). Synchronous Ethernet and IEEE 1588 in Telecoms. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Baun, C. (2011). Cloud Computing: Web-Based Dynamic IT Services (M. Kunze, J. Nimis, & S. Tai, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Montefusco, F., Akman, O. E., Soyer, O. S., & Bates, D. G. (2014). Modelling and Analysis of Feedback Control Mechanisms Underlying Osmoregulation in Yeast. In V. V. Kulkarni, G.-B. Stan, & K. Raman (Eds.), A Systems Theoretic Approach to Systems and Synthetic Biology II: Analysis and Design of Cellular Systems (pp. 83–116). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Thinking Skills and Creativity.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, October 19). New Findings: Anxiety Is Linked To Death From Cancer In Men. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1975). Agricultural Attache Role Overseas: What He Does and How He Can Be More Effective for the United States (ID-75-40). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, J. G. (2012). An Exploration of the Psychosocial Aspects of Weight Among College Students in the College Environment [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman, M. M. (2015, October 23). This Time, Fiat Chrysler Workers Approve Contract. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kalirai, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Evans & Foster, 2011; Kalirai, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Evans & Foster, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Pornillos et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Smith et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleThinking Skills and Creativity
AbbreviationThink. Skills Creat.
ISSN (print)1871-1871

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