How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Riordan M. The suspense of strangeness. Nature. 2001;409(6819):457.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scully MO, Zubairy MS. Physics. Playing tricks with slow light. Science. 2003;301(5630):181-182.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hibbins AP, Evans BR, Sambles JR. Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons. Science. 2005;308(5722):670-672.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Silverstein SC, Dubner J, Miller J, Glied S, Loike JD. Teachers’ participation in research programs improves their students’ achievement in science. Science. 2009;326(5951):440-442.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ramirez J. Accounting for Derivatives. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Hamm C, ed. Evolution of Lightweight Structures: Analyses and Technical Applications. Vol 6. Springer Netherlands; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Izmailov I, Poizner B, Romanov I, Smolskiy S. Optical Vortices in Ring and Non-ring Interferometers and a Model of the Digital Communication System. In: Poizner B, Romanov I, Smolskiy S, eds. Cryptology Transmitted Message Protection: From Deterministic Chaos up to Optical Vortices. Signals and Communication Technology. Springer International Publishing; 2016:259-332.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedics.

Blog post
Davis J. Bizarre-Looking Hairy Slug Fossil May Be The Ancestor To Snails, Clams, And Octopuses. IFLScience. Published February 7, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Access to Space: Issues Associated With DOD’s Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kay VL. A Single Mother and Child Welfare: A Personal Narrative. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson M. Before Prison, Producer Recalls Fateful Night. New York Times. August 15, 2017:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedics
AbbreviationJ. Orthop.
ISSN (print)0972-978X

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