How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clay J. Freeze the footprint of food. Nature. 2011;475(7356):287-289.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rathmell JC, Newgard CB. Biochemistry. A glucose-to-gene link. Science. 2009;324(5930):1021-1022.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rasmussen LEL, Riddle HS, Krishnamurthy V. Mellifluous matures to malodorous in musth. Nature. 2002;415(6875):975-976.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pansieri C, Pandolfini C, Elie V, et al. Ureaplasma, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and azithromycin in European neonatal intensive care units: a survey. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4076.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stack T, Ostrom LT, Wilhelmsen CA. Occupational Ergonomics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
Coen S, ed. Mathematicians in Bologna 1861–1960. Basel: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Brusilovsky P, Somyürek S, Guerra J, Hosseini R, Zadorozhny V. The Value of Social: Comparing Open Student Modeling and Open Social Student Modeling. In: Ricci F, Bontcheva K, Conlan O, Lawless S, eds. User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization: 23rd International Conference, UMAP 2015, Dublin, Ireland, June 29 -- July 3, 2015. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:44-55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedics.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Did Jupiter And Saturn Form? The Answer May Lie With The Humble Pebble. IFLScience. Published August 20, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Teenage Prostitution and Child Pornography. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bourne BB. Phenomenological study of response to organizational change: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gurley G. That Extra Mile for Love. New York Times. October 8, 2015:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedics
AbbreviationJ. Orthop.
ISSN (print)0972-978X

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