How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Roberts D. Adrienne Asch (1946-2013). Nature. 2013;504(7480):377.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Lasne F, de Ceaurriz J. Recombinant erythropoietin in urine. Nature. 2000;405(6787):635.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Zhu G, Golding GB, Dean AM. The selective cause of an ancient adaptation. Science. 2005;307(5713):1279-1282.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Krishnakumar R, Gamble MJ, Frizzell KM, Berrocal JG, Kininis M, Kraus WL. Reciprocal binding of PARP-1 and histone H1 at promoters specifies transcriptional outcomes. Science. 2008;319(5864):819-821.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Moeller RR. Executive’s Guide to IT Governance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1.
Dasalukunte D. Faster than Nyquist Signaling: Algorithms to Silicon. (Öwall V, Rusek F, Anderson JB, eds.). Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Achimugu P, Selamat A. A Hybridized Approach for Prioritizing Software Requirements Based on K-Means and Evolutionary Algorithms. In: Azar AT, Vaidyanathan S, eds. Computational Intelligence Applications in Modeling and Control. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer International Publishing; 2015:73-93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedics.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Watch Rhinos Being Dehorned To Save Their Lives. IFLScience. Published October 28, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/rhinos-dehorned-save-their-lives/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Commercial Drivers: Certification Process for Drivers with Serious Medical Conditions. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Manalo JB. Ascend Physical Therapy: A Private Practice Clinic for the Next Level. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Brantley B. Seizing the Day, Hankie in Hand. New York Times. November 18, 2016:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedics
AbbreviationJ. Orthop.
ISSN (print)0972-978X
Scope

Other styles