How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Sarewitz D. Sometimes science must give way to religion. Nature. 2012;488(7412):431.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Anderson RF, Carr M-E. Paleoclimate. Uncorking the Southern Ocean’s vintage CO2. Science. 2010;328(5982):1117-1118.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Zhang PC, Keleshian AM, Sachs F. Voltage-induced membrane movement. Nature. 2001;413(6854):428-432.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Chamberlain SR, Müller U, Blackwell AD, Clark L, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ. Neurochemical modulation of response inhibition and probabilistic learning in humans. Science. 2006;311(5762):861-863.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Kaul S, Ali F, Janakiram S, Wattenström B. Business Models for Sustainable Telecoms Growth in Developing Economies. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1.
Rao CR. Linear Models and Generalizations: Least Squares and Alternatives. Third Extended Edition. (Shalabh, Toutenburg H, Heumann C, eds.). Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Tang Y, Deng K, Cao H, Zhou X. Trace-Based Runtime Instruction Rescheduling for Architecture Extension. In: Yang LT, Zhou X, Zhao W, Wu Z, Zhu Y, Lin M, eds. Embedded Software and Systems: Second International Conference, ICESS 2005, Xi’an, China, December 16-18, 2005. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2005:4-15.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedics.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Wednesday’s “Blood Moon” Total Eclipse As Seen From Mercury. IFLScience. Published October 11, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/space/eclipse-seen-mercury/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Student Loans: Selected Characteristics of Schools in Two Major Federal Loan Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Gilman DG. Comparative analysis of corporate culture in a multinational organization. Published online 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Ryerson J. University Presses. New York Times. November 18, 2016:BR35.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedics
AbbreviationJ. Orthop.
ISSN (print)0972-978X
Scope

Other styles