How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hillery M. Physics. Quantum walks through a waveguide maze. Science. 2010;329(5998):1477-1478.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sonenberg N, Filipowicz W. Retrospective. Aaron Shatkin (1934-2012). Science. 2012;337(6092):309.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jarillo-Herrero P, van Dam JA, Kouwenhoven LP. Quantum supercurrent transistors in carbon nanotubes. Nature. 2006;439(7079):953-956.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wright SI, Bi IV, Schroeder SG, et al. The effects of artificial selection on the maize genome. Science. 2005;308(5726):1310-1314.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Peca SP. Real Estate Development and Investment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Bazzan ALC, Craven M, Martins NF, eds. Advances in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology: Third Brazilian Symposium on Bioinformatics, BSB 2008, Santo André, Brazil, August 28-30, 2008. Proceedings. Vol 5167. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Jang JB, Lee HP, Hwang KM, Song YC. Prediction of Prestress Force on Grouted Tendon by Experimental Modal Analysis. In: Proulx T, ed. Dynamics of Civil Structures, Volume 4: Proceedings of the 28th IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2010. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. Springer; 2011:33-39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedics.

Blog post
Hale T. Video Shows Octopus Puffing Itself Up Like A Balloon. IFLScience. Published February 3, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Acquisition and Utilization of T-38 Jet Aircraft. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson EA. Factors Associated with Post-Stroke Depressive Symptoms and Quality of Life. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goldberg S. The town where mercury still rises. New York Times. April 19, 2017:0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedics
AbbreviationJ. Orthop.
ISSN (print)0972-978X

Other styles