How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Barnes WJP. Materials science. Biomimetic solutions to sticky problems. Science. 2007;318(5848):203-204.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Fan QR, Hendrickson WA. Structure of human follicle-stimulating hormone in complex with its receptor. Nature. 2005;433(7023):269-277.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Liu M, Johnston MB, Snaith HJ. Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition. Nature. 2013;501(7467):395-398.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Myllykallio H, Lipowski G, Leduc D, Filee J, Forterre P, Liebl U. An alternative flavin-dependent mechanism for thymidylate synthesis. Science. 2002;297(5578):105-107.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Wright JR, Cooper JE. Introduction to Aircraft Aeroelasticity and Loads. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Miesenberger K, Bühler C, Penaz P, eds. Computers Helping People with Special Needs: 15th International Conference, ICCHP 2016, Linz, Austria, July 13-15, 2016, Proceedings, Part I. Vol 9758. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Gao X, Ren X, Zhang C, Zhu C. Online Identification and Robust Adaptive Control for Discrete Hysteresis Preisach Model. In: Jia Y, Du J, Li H, Zhang W, eds. Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference: Volume 1. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016:41-49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedics.

Blog post
1.
Hale T. Three-Quarters Of Endangered Species Are Threatened Through Overexploitation By Humans. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/threequarters-of-endangered-species-are-threatened-through-overexploitation-by-humans/. Published August 11, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Youth with Autism: Roundtable Views of Services Needed During the Transition into Adulthood. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Merkurjev D. Understanding Enhancer Role in Transcriptional Response. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Feeney K. This ‘Green’ Is Not a Color. New York Times. November 8, 2009:NJ13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedics
AbbreviationJ. Orthop.
ISSN (print)0972-978X
Scope

Other styles