How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tomasz A. Microbiology. Weapons of microbial drug resistance abound in soil flora. Science. 2006;311(5759):342-343.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu SQ, Cull-Candy SG. Synaptic activity at calcium-permeable AMPA receptors induces a switch in receptor subtype. Nature. 2000;405(6785):454-458.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jakosky BM, Haberle RM, Arvidson RE. Planetary science. The changing picture of volatiles and climate on Mars. Science. 2005;310(5753):1439-1440.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Emison ES, McCallion AS, Kashuk CS, et al. A common sex-dependent mutation in a RET enhancer underlies Hirschsprung disease risk. Nature. 2005;434(7035):857-863.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Casadella V, Liu Z, Uzunidis D. Innovation Capabilities and Economic Development in Open Economies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
Bessis N, Dobre C, eds. Big Data and Internet of Things: A Roadmap for Smart Environments. Vol 546. Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhu R, Janczewski L. A Proposed Framework for Examining Information Systems Security Research: A Multilevel Perspective. In: Vogel D, Guo X, Linger H, Barry C, Lang M, Schneider C, eds. Transforming Healthcare Through Information Systems: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Information Systems Development. Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation. Springer International Publishing; 2016:49-61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Enormous Spider Web Spotted In Texas. IFLScience. Published August 11, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Direction Needed for Educating Handicapped Children in State Schools. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Foster HC. The Effect of Droplet Size and Sprayer Type on Physical Drift. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bilefsky D. Court Decides Not to Certify Ouster Vote In Romania. New York Times. August 3, 2012:A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedics
AbbreviationJ. Orthop.
ISSN (print)0972-978X

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