How to format your references using the The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Henrich J. Animal behaviour: inequity aversion in capuchins? Nature. 2004 Mar 11;428(6979):139; discussion 140.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prakash M, Gershenfeld N. Microfluidic bubble logic. Science. 2007 Feb 9;315(5813):832–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu X, Han F, Zhao Q. Homologies and homeotic transformation of the theropod “semilunate” carpal. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 13;4:6042.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gagneux S, Long CD, Small PM, Van T, Schoolnik GK, Bohannan BJM. The competitive cost of antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Science. 2006 Jun 30;312(5782):1944–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu E, Noppe-Brandon S. Imagination First. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass; 2011.
An edited book
Karge HG, Weitkamp J, editors. Adsorption and Diffusion. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. XV, 400 p. 181 illus., 2 illus. in color. (Molecular Sieves; vol. 7).
A chapter in an edited book
Gupta G, Bansal A, Min R, Simon L, Mallya A. Coinductive Logic Programming and Its Applications. In: Dahl V, Niemelä I, editors. Logic Programming: 23rd International Conference, ICLP 2007, Porto, Portugal, September 8-13, 2007 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 27–44. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders.

Blog post
Davis J. Why Are Some People Left-Handed? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Award of an Army Advanced Development Contract in 1971 to the Boeing Company Calling for the Design Fabrication and Testing of Certain Critical Advanced Technology Components. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972 Dec. Report No.: B-176701.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nattress DA. Benefits of single-gender education: Perceptions of middle grade teachers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davis JH, Shear MD. Team of Rivals At the Lectern For a President. New York Times. 2017 Jul 22;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders
AbbreviationPrim. Care Companion CNS Disord.
ISSN (print)2155-7772
ISSN (online)2155-7780

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