How to format your references using the The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brook EJ. Atmosphere. Leads and lags at the end of the last ice age. Science. 2013 Mar 1;339(6123):1042–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thomas DN, Dieckmann GS. Antarctic Sea ice--a habitat for extremophiles. Science. 2002 Jan 25;295(5555):641–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ben-David O, Cohen G, Fineberg J. The dynamics of the onset of frictional slip. Science. 2010 Oct 8;330(6001):211–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Knorr W, Prentice IC, House JI, Holland EA. Long-term sensitivity of soil carbon turnover to warming. Nature. 2005 Jan 20;433(7023):298–301.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rainey LD. Confucius & Confucianism. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Moheimani SOR. Piezoelectric Transducers for Vibration Control and Damping. Fleming AJ, editor. London: Springer; 2006. XVI, 271 p. (Advances in Industrial Control).
A chapter in an edited book
Genovese E, Leonardi A, Callegari L, Angeretti MG, Albrizio M, Spanò E, et al. Major and Minor Pediatric Traumatic Musculotendinous Injuries. In: Martino F, Defilippi C, Caudana R, editors. Imaging of Pediatric Bone and Joint Trauma. Milano: Springer; 2011. p. 69–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders.

Blog post
Taub B. Robots May Soon Be Able To Feel Pain [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security Administration Field Offices: Reduced Workforce Faces Challenges as Baby Boomers Retire. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 May. Report No.: GAO-08-737T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson KL. Putting together the pieces of a social cognition deficit: A retrospective case study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. 139 Years Ago: American Museum of Natural History Opens Its Permanent Home. New York Times. 2016 Jan 22;C32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders
AbbreviationPrim. Care Companion CNS Disord.
ISSN (print)2155-7772
ISSN (online)2155-7780

Other styles