How to format your references using the Thermal Science and Engineering Progress citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Thermal Science and Engineering Progress. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.D. Maynard, Don’t define nanomaterials, Nature. 475 (2011) 31.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Vollan, E. Ostrom, Social science. Cooperation and the commons, Science. 330 (2010) 923–924.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Renata, Q. Zhou, P.S. Baran, Strategic redox relay enables a scalable synthesis of ouabagenin, a bioactive cardenolide, Science. 339 (2013) 59–63.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Xiang, W. Lu, Y. Hu, Y. Wu, H. Yan, C.M. Lieber, Ge/Si nanowire heterostructures as high-performance field-effect transistors, Nature. 441 (2006) 489–493.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.R. Woods, Successful Trouble Shooting for Process Engineers, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2005.
An edited book
G.P. Moss, Predictive Methods in Percutaneous Absorption, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Håkanson, A.C. Bryhn, Nutrients and Representativity of Data, in: A.C. Bryhn (Ed.), Tools and Criteria for Sustainable Coastal Ecosystem Management: Examples from the Baltic Sea and Other Aquatic Systems, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 59–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Thermal Science and Engineering Progress.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Blood Test Could Predict Alzheimer’s 10 Years Before Symptoms Appear, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, ADP Contracts: Army Needs to Correct Budget Disclosure Deficiencies, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.L. Biermann, The distribution of Callinectes sapidus megalopae at the mouths of Chesapeake and Delaware Bays: Implications for larval ingress, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Bray, M.J. de la MERCED, QVC and Home Shopping Network to Join Forces in $2.1 Billion Merger, New York Times. (2017) B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThermal Science and Engineering Progress
ISSN (print)2451-9049

Other styles