How to format your references using the Thermal Science and Engineering Progress citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Thermal Science and Engineering Progress. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Campbell, Distalization of the Drosophila leg by graded EGF-receptor activity, Nature. 418 (2002) 781–785.
A journal article with 2 authors
H.J.B. Birks, H.H. Birks, Paleoecology. The rise and fall of forests, Science. 305 (2004) 484–485.
A journal article with 3 authors
F.F. Pollitz, C. Wicks, W. Thatcher, Mantle flow beneath a continental strike-slip fault: postseismic deformation after the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake, Science. 293 (2001) 1814–1818.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.L. Sarmiento, N. Gruber, M.A. Brzezinski, J.P. Dunne, High-latitude controls of thermocline nutrients and low latitude biological productivity, Nature. 427 (2004) 56–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. DiBattista, Novel Characters, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
F. Scholz, ed., Electrochemistry in a Divided World: Innovations in Eastern Europe in the 20th Century, 1st ed. 2015, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Britain, On the Relationship Between Pedagogical Design and Content Management in eLearning, in: N.F. Ferrer, J.M. Alfonso (Eds.), Content Management for E-Learning, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 55–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Thermal Science and Engineering Progress.

Blog post
J. Fang, Childhood Trauma Alters Neural Responses to Stress, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Survey of Workforce Investment Board Directors on the Use of Individual Training Accounts, an E-supplement to GAO-05-650, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.D. Prejean, An Analysis of Corporal Punishment Practices in Texas Public Schools: Race, School District Size, Academic Performance, and Policy Influences, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
R. Pear, K. Kelly, Trump Concedes Health Overhaul Is a Thorny Task, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThermal Science and Engineering Progress
ISSN (print)2451-9049

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