How to format your references using the History of Geo- and Space Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for History of Geo- and Space Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gavaghan, H.: Companies of all sizes are prospecting for proteins, Nature, 404, 684–686, 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thiele, A. and Stoner, G.: Neuronal synchrony does not correlate with motion coherence in cortical area MT, Nature, 421, 366–370, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nobes, C., Lloyd, A., and Marsh, M.: RETROSPECTIVE. Alan Hall (1952-2015), Science, 350, 1039, 2015.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Li, R., Mitra, N., Gratkowski, H., Vilaire, G., Litvinov, R., Nagasami, C., Weisel, J. W., Lear, J. D., DeGrado, W. F., and Bennett, J. S.: Activation of integrin alphaIIbbeta3 by modulation of transmembrane helix associations, Science, 300, 795–798, 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Katsilambros, N., Kanaka-Gantenbein, C., Liatis, S., Makrilakis, K., and Tentolouris, N.: Diabetic Emergencies, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
Zabel, H. and Bader, S. D. (Eds.): Magnetic Heterostructures: Advances and Perspectives in Spinstructures and Spintransport, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XII, 364 p. 175 illus pp., 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Barbosa, V. H.: Nonscarring Alopecias, in: Skin of Color: A Practical Guide to Dermatologic Diagnosis and Treatment, edited by: Alexis, A. F. and Barbosa, V. H., Springer, New York, NY, 91–104, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for History of Geo- and Space Sciences.

Blog post
GM Food Labels Do Not Act As A Warning To Consumers:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Technology Transfer and Innovation Can Help Cities Identify Problems and Solutions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Houger, V. P.: Generational differences and the impact to employee engagement: A program design, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J. and Mueller, B.: 2 Escapees Still at Large Despite 450-Officer Hunt in Remote, Swampy Area, New York Times, 10th June, A20, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gavaghan, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gavaghan, 2000; Thiele and Stoner, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thiele and Stoner, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences
AbbreviationHist. Geo Space Sci.
ISSN (print)2190-5010
ISSN (online)2190-5029
ScopeHistory and Philosophy of Science
General Earth and Planetary Sciences

Other styles