How to format your references using the History of Geo- and Space Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for History of Geo- and Space Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benner, S. A.: Natural progression, Nature, 409, 459, 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Neshev, D. and Kivshar, Y.: Physics. Nonlinear optics pushed to the edge, Science, 344, 483–484, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Y. C., Cheng, T. H., and Gartenberg, M. R.: Establishment of transcriptional silencing in the absence of DNA replication, Science, 291, 650–653, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
List, M., Schmidt, S., Trojnar, J., Thomas, J., Thomassen, M., Kruse, T. A., Tan, Q., Baumbach, J., and Mollenhauer, J.: Efficient sample tracking with OpenLabFramework, Sci. Rep., 4, 4278, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D’Andrea, A. and Sjogren, J.: Veterinary Technician’s Large Animal Daily Reference Guide, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2013.
An edited book
Marcus, A. (Ed.): Design, User Experience, and Usability. Theory, Methods, Tools and Practice: First International Conference, DUXU 2011, Held as Part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, Proceedings, Part II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XXXI, 676 p pp., 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Bal, C. and Fleck, N.: Connected Stadium: A Pillar for Football Clubs’ Marketing Development?, in: Making a Difference Through Marketing: A Quest for Diverse Perspectives, edited by: Plewa, C. and Conduit, J., Springer, Singapore, 43–58, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for History of Geo- and Space Sciences.

Blog post
The Recession Is The Real Reason For The U.S.’s Reduced Emissions:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Controls Over Nonimmigrant Aliens Remain Ineffective, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leonard Puppa, E. L.: Duration of case management: Correlation with Medicaid pediatric patient outcomes, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mancuso, A. and Mueller, B.: 2 Workers Die When Backyard Fuel Tank Explodes in Westchester County, New York Times, 8th May, A19, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benner, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Benner, 2001; Neshev and Kivshar, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Neshev and Kivshar, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (List et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences
AbbreviationHist. Geo Space Sci.
ISSN (print)2190-5010
ISSN (online)2190-5029
ScopeHistory and Philosophy of Science
General Earth and Planetary Sciences

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