How to format your references using the History of Geo- and Space Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for History of Geo- and Space Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gavaghan, H.: Mergers and acquisitions rock UK chemical industry infrastructure, Nature, 406(6797), 812, 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stephens, R. and Richey, M.: A business view on U.S. education, Science, 340(6130), 313–314, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cacchione, D. A., Pratson, L. F. and Ogston, A. S.: The shaping of continental slopes by internal tides, Science, 296(5568), 724–727, 2002.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Huang, X., Zhao, Y., Ao, Z. and Wang, G.: Micelle-template synthesis of nitrogen-doped mesoporous graphene as an efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for hydrogen production, Sci. Rep., 4, 7557, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Graham, L.: Complying with Sarbanes-Oxley Section 404, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2010.
An edited book
Fortis, M., Ed.: The Pillars of the Italian Economy: Manufacturing, Food & Wine, Tourism, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Mandl, C., Hauser, M. and Mandl, H.: Interdependency of Meetings and Organizations, in The Co-creative Meeting: Practicing Consensual Effectivity in Organizations, edited by M. Hauser and H. Mandl, pp. 21–27, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for History of Geo- and Space Sciences.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Scales, Feathers, and Hair All Evolved From A Common Ancestor, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Passenger Facility Charges: Program Implementation and the Potential Effects of Proposed Changes, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wenger, M. C.: Free-choice family learning experiences at informal astronomy observing events, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ., 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Galani, U. and Hay, G.: Helping Dubai, but Only So Far, New York Times, 30th November, B2, 2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gavaghan, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gavaghan, 2000; Stephens and Richey, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stephens and Richey, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences
AbbreviationHist. Geo Space Sci.
ISSN (print)2190-5010
ISSN (online)2190-5029
ScopeHistory and Philosophy of Science
General Earth and Planetary Sciences

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