How to format your references using the History of Geo- and Space Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for History of Geo- and Space Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Godfray, H. C. J.: Ecology. Food and biodiversity, Science, 333, 1231–1232, 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
Noda, H. and Lapusta, N.: Stable creeping fault segments can become destructive as a result of dynamic weakening, Nature, 493, 518–521, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Salvadori, M. R., Nascimento, C. A. O., and Corrêa, B.: Nickel oxide nanoparticles film produced by dead biomass of filamentous fungus, Sci. Rep., 4, 6404, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Guet, C. C., Elowitz, M. B., Hsing, W., and Leibler, S.: Combinatorial synthesis of genetic networks, Science, 296, 1466–1470, 2002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bernström, S.: Valuation, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
Vijayakumar, V. and Neelanarayanan, V. (Eds.): Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Big Data and Cloud Computing Challenges (ISBCC – 16’), 1st ed. 2016., Springer International Publishing, Cham, XX, 520 p. 157 illus., 104 illus. in color pp., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Bukovac Puvača, M., Mihelčić, G., and Tuhtan Grgić, I.: Can Financial Crisis Lead to the Application of the Institute of Changed Circumstances Under Croatian Law?, in: The Effects of Financial Crises on the Binding Force of Contracts - Renegotiation, Rescission or Revision, edited by: Başoğlu, B., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 83–99, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for History of Geo- and Space Sciences.

Blog post
NASA Shows Off Psychedelic Pluto:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Amtrak Management: Systemic Problems Require Actions to Improve Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Accountability, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eggleston, B. P.: An Investigation of the Difference in Student Achievement during the Middle School Transition Years, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LINDA MARX; Rosalie R. Radomsky contributed reporting from New York: Elizabeth Greig and Jason Extein, New York Times, 14th March, ST15, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Godfray, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Godfray, 2011; Noda and Lapusta, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Noda and Lapusta, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Guet et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences
AbbreviationHist. Geo Space Sci.
ISSN (print)2190-5010
ISSN (online)2190-5029
ScopeHistory and Philosophy of Science
General Earth and Planetary Sciences

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