How to format your references using the Icarus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Icarus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Polyakov, V.B., 2009. Equilibrium iron isotope fractionation at core-mantle boundary conditions. Science 323, 912–914.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chambers, J.Q., Roberts, D.A., 2014. Ecology: drought in the congo basin. Nature 509, 36–37.
A journal article with 3 authors
Salvadori, M.R., Nascimento, C.A.O., Corrêa, B., 2014. Nickel oxide nanoparticles film produced by dead biomass of filamentous fungus. Sci. Rep. 4, 6404.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, C., Wu, B., Beglopoulos, V., Wines-Samuelson, M., Zhang, D., Dragatsis, I., Südhof, T.C., Shen, J., 2009. Presenilins are essential for regulating neurotransmitter release. Nature 460, 632–636.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grigorenko, Y.N., Chilingar, G.V., Sobolev, V.S., Andiyeva, T.A., Zhukova, L.I., 2012. Petroleum Accumulation Zones on Continental Margins. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Steenbeek, O., Lecq, F. van der (Eds.), 2007. Costs and Benefits of Collective Pension Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Handke, V., Jonuschat, H., 2013. Launching the Service: Reaching a Critical Mass by Establishing an Internet-Based Service, in: Jonuschat, H. (Ed.), Flexible Ridesharing: New Opportunities and Service Concepts for Sustainable Mobility. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 59–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Icarus.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2015. How Gaming Impacts Childrens’ Academic Achievements [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1970. Allowances for Independent Research and Development Costs in Negotiated Contracts (No. 094459). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gaines, M., 2017. Perceptions of knowledge sharing within hybrid learning environments: As iron sharpens iron among graduate students (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2013. Trainer Denies Giving Banned Drugs to Jamaican Sprinters. New York Times B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Polyakov, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Chambers and Roberts, 2014; Polyakov, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chambers and Roberts, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleIcarus
ISSN (print)0019-1035
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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