How to format your references using the Icarus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Icarus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Richmond, B., 2001. Neuroscience. Information coding. Science 294, 2493–2494.
A journal article with 2 authors
Flatt, T., Promislow, D.E.L., 2007. Physiology. Still pondering an age-old question. Science 318, 1255–1256.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sousa-Nunes, R., Yee, L.L., Gould, A.P., 2011. Fat cells reactivate quiescent neuroblasts via TOR and glial insulin relays in Drosophila. Nature 471, 508–512.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Santiago, J., Dupeux, F., Round, A., Antoni, R., Park, S.-Y., Jamin, M., Cutler, S.R., Rodriguez, P.L., Márquez, J.A., 2009. The abscisic acid receptor PYR1 in complex with abscisic acid. Nature 462, 665–668.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morrow, E., Boaz, A., Brearley, S., Ross, F., 2011. Handbook of Service User Involvement in Nursing and Healthcare Research. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Resch, M., Roller, S., Benkert, K., Galle, M., Bez, W., Kobayashi, H., Hirayama, T. (Eds.), 2009. High Performance Computing on Vector Systems 2008. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Adkins, C.E., Mittapalli, R.K., Bohn, K.A., Bansal, A., Venishetty, V.K., Lockman, P.R., 2012. Vascular Permeability Within Brain Metastases, in: Palmieri, D. (Ed.), Central Nervous System Metastasis, the Biological Basis and Clinical Considerations. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 55–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Icarus.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2016. Giant Goldfish Demonstrate Why Not To Release Pets Into The Wild [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. National Aeronautical Facilities Program: Issues Related to Its Cost and Need (No. LCD-75-329). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alsaadi, A., 2016. Smart smoke and fire detection with wireless and global system for mobile technology (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Coscarelli, J., Ryzik, M., Sisario, B., 2017. Anger, Lawsuits and Inquiry Follow Music Festival’s Failure. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Richmond, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Flatt and Promislow, 2007; Richmond, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Flatt and Promislow, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Santiago et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleIcarus
ISSN (print)0019-1035
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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