How to format your references using the Icarus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Icarus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grenier, I.A., 2000. Gamma-ray astronomy. A needle in a cosmic haystack. Nature 404, 344–345.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bradshaw, W., Holzapfel, C., 2007. Evolution. Tantalizing timeless. Science 316, 1851–1852.
A journal article with 3 authors
Säterberg, T., Sellman, S., Ebenman, B., 2013. High frequency of functional extinctions in ecological networks. Nature 499, 468–470.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jones, M.W.M., Elgass, K., Junker, M.D., Luu, M.B., Ryan, M.T., Peele, A.G., van Riessen, G.A., 2014. Mapping biological composition through quantitative phase and absorption X-ray ptychography. Sci. Rep. 4, 6796.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Donham, K.J., Thelin, A., 2016. Agricultural Medicine. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Edney, A., 2007. Pro LCS: Live Communications Server Administration. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Grimm, F., Fets, L., Anastasiou, D., 2016. Gas Chromatography Coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) to Study Metabolism in Cultured Cells, in: Koumenis, C., Coussens, L.M., Giaccia, A., Hammond, E. (Eds.), Tumor Microenvironment: Study Protocols, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 59–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Icarus.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Oil Starts To Flow In Untouched Corner Of Ecuador’s Biodiversity Haven [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. ADP Telecommunications: HCFA Needs to Expedite Transition to FTS 2000 (No. IMTEC-91-10). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Du, L., 2012. Economic model for vehicle ownership quota policy analysis (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2002. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Anti-Semitic Violence. New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grenier, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bradshaw and Holzapfel, 2007; Grenier, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bradshaw and Holzapfel, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Jones et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleIcarus
ISSN (print)0019-1035
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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