How to format your references using the Icarus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Icarus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eakin, C.M., 2014. Oceans. Lamarck was partially right--and that is good for corals. Science 344, 798–799.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burton, D.R., Wilson, I.A., 2007. Immunology. Square-dancing antibodies. Science 317, 1507–1508.
A journal article with 3 authors
Takahashi, K., Mitsui, K., Yamanaka, S., 2003. Role of ERas in promoting tumour-like properties in mouse embryonic stem cells. Nature 423, 541–545.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Burresi, M., van Oosten, D., Kampfrath, T., Schoenmaker, H., Heideman, R., Leinse, A., Kuipers, L., 2009. Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies. Science 326, 550–553.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Voigtman, E., 2017. Limits of Detection in Chemical Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.
An edited book
Brown, N., Franke, W. (Eds.), 2016. Transcendence, Immanence, and Intercultural Philosophy. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Ščančar, J., Heath, E., Zuliani, T., Horvat, M., Kotnik, J., Perko, S., Milačič, R., 2015. Elements and Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Sediments of the Sava River, in: Milačič, R., Ščančar, J., Paunović, M. (Eds.), The Sava River, The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 95–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Icarus.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Planet Earth Now Has A Flag [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Public Transportation: FTA’s Triennial Review Program Has Improved, But Assessments of Grantees’ Performance Could Be Enhanced (No. GAO-09-603). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ward, D., 2014. Teaching with the End in Mind: A Teacher’s Life History as a Legacy of Educational Leaders (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2017. Collins, Nearing a Mets Milestone, Is Still Enjoying the Journey. New York Times D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eakin, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Burton and Wilson, 2007; Eakin, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burton and Wilson, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Burresi et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleIcarus
ISSN (print)0019-1035
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Other styles