How to format your references using the Icarus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Icarus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goodman, S., 2005. The familial balancing act. Nature 433, 552–553.
A journal article with 2 authors
Colavita, A., Tessier-Lavigne, M., 2003. A Neurexin-related protein, BAM-2, terminates axonal branches in C. elegans. Science 302, 293–296.
A journal article with 3 authors
Harvey, C.D., Coen, P., Tank, D.W., 2012. Choice-specific sequences in parietal cortex during a virtual-navigation decision task. Nature 484, 62–68.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Irifune, T., Shinmei, T., McCammon, C.A., Miyajima, N., Rubie, D.C., Frost, D.J., 2010. Iron partitioning and density changes of pyrolite in Earth’s lower mantle. Science 327, 193–195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Welker, R.W., Nagarajan, R., Newberg, C.E., 2005. Contamination and ESD Control in High-Technology Manufacturing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Nguyen, C., 2016. Stepped-Frequency Radar Sensors: Theory, Analysis and Design, SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Shaw, L.J., 2013. Healthcare Costs of Angina in Women, in: Kaski, J.C., Eslick, G.D., Bairey Merz, C.N. (Eds.), Chest Pain with Normal Coronary Arteries: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Springer, London, pp. 49–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Icarus.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. Can Monkeys Have Autism? The Answer Could Help Us Understand What Causes The Condition [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Youth with Autism: Roundtable Views of Services Needed During the Transition into Adulthood (No. GAO-17-109). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, C.S., 2017. Electronic Transport of Thin Crystals in Ruthenium Chloride (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. Scouting Report. New York Times E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goodman, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Colavita and Tessier-Lavigne, 2003; Goodman, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Colavita and Tessier-Lavigne, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Irifune et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleIcarus
ISSN (print)0019-1035
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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