How to format your references using the Icarus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Icarus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilsdon, J., 2015. We need a measured approach to metrics. Nature 523, 129.
A journal article with 2 authors
Davis, B.R., Candotti, F., 2010. Genetics. Mosaicism--switch or spectrum? Science 330, 46–47.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alley, R.B., Fahnestock, M., Joughin, I., 2008. Climate change. Understanding glacier flow in changing times. Science 322, 1061–1062.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sang, H., Jarvis, S.P., Zhou, Z., Sharp, P., Moriarty, P., Wang, J., Wang, Y., Kantorovich, L., 2014. Identifying tips for intramolecular NC-AFM imaging via in situ fingerprinting. Sci. Rep. 4, 6678.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bunker, G., Thomson, D., 2006. Delivering Utility Computing. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Ralchenko, Y. (Ed.), 2016. Modern Methods in Collisional-Radiative Modeling of Plasmas, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Hughes, D., Evans, M., Morrow, G., Keith, S., 2016. Creativities, Production Technologies and Song Authorship, in: Evans, M., Morrow, G., Keith, S. (Eds.), The New Music Industries: Disruption and Discovery. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 63–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Icarus.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. Tens Of Thousands Of Dead Fish Just Washed Up On A Cornish Beach – Here’s Why [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Aviation Safety: Improved Data Quality and Analysis Capabilities Are Needed as FAA Plans a Risk-Based Approach to Safety Oversight (No. GAO-10-414). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wurster, K.W., 2010. Management matter? Effects of charcoal production management on woodland regeneration in Senegal (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff, J., 2016. Trump Won Battle of Ranting, Raving Twitter Robots, Researchers Say. New York Times A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wilsdon, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Davis and Candotti, 2010; Wilsdon, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Davis and Candotti, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Sang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleIcarus
ISSN (print)0019-1035
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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