How to format your references using the Petroleum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Petroleum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Heyde, Materials Science. Structure and motion of a 2D glass, Science. 342 (2013) 201–202.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.N. Win, C.D. Smolke, Higher-order cellular information processing with synthetic RNA devices, Science. 322 (2008) 456–460.
A journal article with 3 authors
W.M. Miner-Williams, P.J. Moughan, M.F. Fuller, Analysis of an ethanol precipitate from ileal digesta: evaluation of a method to determine mucin, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3145.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. Zhang, P. Qi, X. Wang, Y. Lu, X. Li, R. Tu, S. Bangsaruntip, D. Mann, L. Zhang, H. Dai, Selective etching of metallic carbon nanotubes by gas-phase reaction, Science. 314 (2006) 974–977.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Sauter, From GSM to LTE-Advanced, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
S. Fujita, Quantum Theory of Conducting Matter: Superconductivity, Springer, New York, NY, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Altenhofen, R. Farahbod, Bârun: A Scripting Language for CoreASM, in: M. Frappier, U. Glässer, S. Khurshid, R. Laleau, S. Reeves (Eds.), Abstract State Machines, Alloy, B and Z: Second International Conference, ABZ 2010, Orford, QC, Canada, February 22-25, 2010. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 47–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Petroleum.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Here’s What Happens When You Shine A Laser On The Blackest Material Ever Made, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, International Broadcasting: Downsizing and Relocating Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Tuschall, Exploration of the Relationship Between Implicit Theory of Intelligence and Employability, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Brantley, Shakespeare, Commandeered Afresh, New York Times. (2017) AR28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePetroleum
ISSN (print)2405-6561

Other styles