How to format your references using the Petroleum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Petroleum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T.E. Wellems, Plasmodium chloroquine resistance and the search for a replacement antimalarial drug, Science. 298 (2002) 124–126.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.S. Gilmore, J.J. Ferretti, Microbiology. The thin line between gut commensal and pathogen, Science. 299 (2003) 1999–2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.C. Rhode, M. Pawlowski, R. Tollrian, The impact of ultraviolet radiation on the vertical distribution of zooplankton of the genus Daphnia, Nature. 412 (2001) 69–72.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B.H. Hong, S.C. Bae, C.W. Lee, S. Jeong, K.S. Kim, Ultrathin single-crystalline silver nanowire arrays formed in an ambient solution phase, Science. 294 (2001) 348–351.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Zhao, Reuse and Recycling of Lithium-Ion Power Batteries, John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore, 2017.
An edited book
J. Bhattacharya, ed., Cell Signaling in Vascular Inflammation, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Savin, Managing Patient Appointments in Primary Care, in: R.W. Hall (Ed.), Patient Flow: Reducing Delay in Healthcare Delivery, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2006: pp. 123–150.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Petroleum.

Blog post
S. Luntz, A Computer Has Reportedly Passed Turing Test For The First Time, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, California High-Speed Passenger Rail: Project Estimates Could Be Improved to Better Inform Future Decisions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.C. Szurley, The use of edge detection techniques to analyze thoracoabdominal movement and infer breathing volume, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Williams, Disappearing Act: The Art and Fraud of Faking Your Own Death, New York Times. (2016) C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePetroleum
ISSN (print)2405-6561

Other styles