How to format your references using the Theory of Computing Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theory of Computing Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hartmann, W.K.: The paradigm and the pendulum. Nature. 404, 817 (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Harpole, W.S., Tilman, D.: Grassland species loss resulting from reduced niche dimension. Nature. 446, 791–793 (2007)
A journal article with 3 authors
Dandekar, A.A., Chugani, S., Greenberg, E.P.: Bacterial quorum sensing and metabolic incentives to cooperate. Science. 338, 264–266 (2012)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hÿtch, M., Houdellier, F., Hüe, F., Snoeck, E.: Nanoscale holographic interferometry for strain measurements in electronic devices. Nature. 453, 1086–1089 (2008)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Casandjian, C., Challamel, N., Lanos, C., Hellesland, J.: Reinforced Concrete Beams, Columns and Frames. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ 07030 USA (2013)
An edited book
Park, J.J. (jong H., Adeli, H., Park, N., Woungang, I. eds: Mobile, Ubiquitous, and Intelligent Computing: MUSIC 2013. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Abdulla, P.A., Atig, M.F., Stenman, J.: Computing Optimal Reachability Costs in Priced Dense-Timed Pushdown Automata. In: Dediu, A.-H., Martín-Vide, C., Sierra-Rodríguez, J.-L., and Truthe, B. (eds.) Language and Automata Theory and Applications: 8th International Conference, LATA 2014, Madrid, Spain, March 10-14, 2014. Proceedings. pp. 62–75. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theory of Computing Systems.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J.: NASA Study Reveals How Mars Turned From A Habitable World Into A Dead Planet,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Suggested Areas for Oversight for the 110th Congress. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2006)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tromp, M.: Bayesian monitoring of clinical trials: Examples using conjugate priors, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K., Stevenson, A.: Doubt After Health Care Defeat Briefly Sends Stocks Tumbling, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheory of Computing Systems
AbbreviationTheory Comput. Syst.
ISSN (print)1432-4350
ISSN (online)1433-0490
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Theoretical Computer Science

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