How to format your references using the Theory of Computing Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theory of Computing Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Stern, P.: The heavily connected brain. Connection, connection, connection... Introduction. Science. 342, 577 (2013)
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Schoenemann, B., Clarkson, E.N.K.: Discovery of some 400 million year-old sensory structures in the compound eyes of trilobites. Sci. Rep. 3, 1429 (2013)
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Fiser, J., Chiu, C., Weliky, M.: Small modulation of ongoing cortical dynamics by sensory input during natural vision. Nature. 431, 573–578 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Xu, X., Graeff, R., Xie, Q., Gamble, K.L., Mori, T., Johnson, C.H.: Comment on “The Arabidopsis circadian clock incorporates a cADPR-based feedback loop.” Science. 326, 230; author reply 230 (2009)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Lunn, G., Sansone, E.B.: Destruction of Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2012)
An edited book
1.
Wu, C., Cohen, A. eds: Advanced Parallel Processing Technologies: 10th International Symposium, APPT 2013, Stockholm, Sweden, August 27-28, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Balasubramanian, S., Weber, A.Z.: Continuum, Macroscopic Modeling of Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells. In: Franco, A.A., Doublet, M.L., and Bessler, W.G. (eds.) Physical Multiscale Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Electrochemical Devices for Energy Conversion and Storage: From Theory to Engineering to Practice. pp. 91–149. Springer, London (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theory of Computing Systems.

Blog post
1.
Luntz, S.: Study Claims Antarctic Ice Is Growing, But Net Gain Will Reverse In Decades, https://www.iflscience.com/environment/antarctica-gaining-ice-not-long/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office: National Transportation Safety Board: Progress Made in Management Practices, Investigation Priorities, Training Center Use, and Information Security, But These Areas Continue to Need Improvement. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2008)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Davis, P.J.: A comparison of a high and low -performing school in the Soroti Catholic Diocese, Uganda, East -Africa, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Vecsey, G.: Appetite for Racing, And for Winning, (2011)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheory of Computing Systems
AbbreviationTheory Comput. Syst.
ISSN (print)1432-4350
ISSN (online)1433-0490
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Theoretical Computer Science

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