How to format your references using the Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.M. Alexander, Obituary: Knut Schmidt-Nielsen (1915-2007), Nature. 446 (2007) 744.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Burgisser, B. Scaillet, Redox evolution of a degassing magma rising to the surface, Nature. 445 (2007) 194–197.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Majumder, A. Ghatak, A. Sharma, Microfluidic adhesion induced by subsurface microstructures, Science. 318 (2007) 258–261.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Wang, L. Deng, M. Hong, G.R. Akkaraju, J. Inoue, Z.J. Chen, TAK1 is a ubiquitin-dependent kinase of MKK and IKK, Nature. 412 (2001) 346–351.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chartered Institute of Building, Code of Practice for Programme Management in the Built Environment, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
A.D. Nicola, A. Cauduro, M. Lombardi, P. Ruspini, eds., Prostitution and Human Trafficking: Focus on Clients, Springer, New York, NY, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Boccaccio, R. Brunelli, L. Lamberti, M. Papi, T. Parasassi, M. De Spirito, C. Pappalettere, A Preliminary Investigation on the Mechanical Behavior of Umbilical Cord With Moiré Techniques, in: H. Jin, C. Sciammarella, S. Yoshida, L. Lamberti (Eds.), Advancement of Optical Methods in Experimental Mechanics, Volume 3: Proceedings of the 2014 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 47–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Cannabis May Have Eased Breast Cancer Symptoms of Siberian Ice Princess, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Business Modernization: Improvements Needed in Management of NASA’s Integrated Financial Management Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Shurts, Superstructure, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
A.E. Kramer, In Georgia, a Claim Russia Is Making More Advances, New York Times. (2008) A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationComp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)0147-9571
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy
Infectious Diseases
General Veterinary

Other styles