How to format your references using the Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B.J. Dickson, Development. Wiring the brain with insulin, Science. 300 (2003) 440–441.
A journal article with 2 authors
I. Baconguis, E. Gouaux, Structural plasticity and dynamic selectivity of acid-sensing ion channel-spider toxin complexes, Nature. 489 (2012) 400–405.
A journal article with 3 authors
W.R. Peltier, Y. Liu, J.W. Crowley, Snowball Earth prevention by dissolved organic carbon remineralization, Nature. 450 (2007) 813–818.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Q. Liu, L. Ning, S. Zheng, M. Tao, Y. Shi, Y. He, Adsorption of carbon dioxide by MIL-101(Cr): regeneration conditions and influence of flue gas contaminants, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2916.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Benslama, W. Kiamouche, H. Batatia, Connections Management Strategies in Satellite Cellular Networks, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
N. Ando, S. Balakirsky, T. Hemker, M. Reggiani, O. von Stryk, eds., Simulation, Modeling, and Programming for Autonomous Robots: Second International Conference, SIMPAR 2010, Darmstadt, Germany, November 15-18, 2010. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Ali, F. Tuot, G. Maunier, Authentication and Mutual Authentication, in: B. Candaele, D. Soudris, I. Anagnostopoulos (Eds.), Trusted Computing for Embedded Systems, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 61–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
S. Luntz, A Better Way To Harness The Wisdom Of Crowds, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: Current Broadband Measures Have Limitations and New Measures Are Promising but Need Improvement, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.L. Hurwitz, Viral community dynamics and functional specialization in the Pacific Ocean, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, Go Figure the American League East, Inside and Out, New York Times. (2010) D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationComp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)0147-9571
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy
Infectious Diseases
General Veterinary

Other styles