How to format your references using the Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Russo, The changing length of PhDs, Nature. 431 (2004) 382–383.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.A. Garrott, M.K. Oli, Conservation. A critical crossroad for BLM’s wild horse program, Science. 341 (2013) 847–848.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.J. Ballentine, D. Porcelli, R. Wieler, Noble gases in mantle plumes, Science. 291 (2001) 2269.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C.-J. Wei, J.C. Boyington, P.M. McTamney, W.-P. Kong, M.B. Pearce, L. Xu, H. Andersen, S. Rao, T.M. Tumpey, Z.-Y. Yang, G.J. Nabel, Induction of broadly neutralizing H1N1 influenza antibodies by vaccination, Science. 329 (2010) 1060–1064.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Brown, R. Prescott, Applied Mixed Models in Medicine, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
P. Gopalakrishnakone, M. Balali-Mood, L. Llewellyn, B.R. Singh, eds., Biological Toxins and Bioterrorism, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Belsky, The Determinants of Parenting in GxE Perspective: A Case of Differential Susceptibility?, in: A. Booth, S.M. McHale, N.S. Landale (Eds.), Biosocial Foundations of Family Processes, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 61–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Four Rare White Lion Cubs Born, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Review of Several Aspects of the Internal Revenue Service’s Proposed Computerized Tax Administration System, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.S. Lieberman, “Stroke Your Thoroughbreds and Kick Your Donkeys”: Power and the Secondary Administrative Distribution of Teaching Assignments, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Kelly, Trump Adviser’s $285 Million Exit Pay Questioned as to Possible Goldman Influence, New York Times. (2017) A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationComp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)0147-9571
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy
Infectious Diseases
General Veterinary

Other styles