How to format your references using the Theory and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theory and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schwarz, U. D. (2015). Tribology. Tracking antiwear film formation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6230), 40–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rotenberg, E., & Yakir, D. (2010). Contribution of semi-arid forests to the climate system. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5964), 451–454.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vivier, E., Nunès, J. A., & Vély, F. (2004). Natural killer cell signaling pathways. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5701), 1517–1519.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Multani, D. S., Briggs, S. P., Chamberlin, M. A., Blakeslee, J. J., Murphy, A. S., & Johal, G. S. (2003). Loss of an MDR transporter in compact stalks of maize br2 and sorghum dw3 mutants. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5642), 81–84.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh, S. A., & Rahman, M. A. (2010). An Introduction to Wavelet Modulated Inverters. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ma, Z. (Ed.). (2006). Soft Computing in Ontologies and Semantic Web (Vol. 204). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kalamkarov, A. L., & Challagulla, K. S. (2013). Effective Properties of Composite Materials, Reinforced Structures and Smart Composites: Asymptotic Homogenization Approach. In M. Kachanov & I. Sevostianov (Eds.), Effective Properties of Heterogeneous Materials (pp. 283–363). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theory and Society.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 4). Awesome Timelapse Of A Resurrection Plant. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). The Requirements Determination Process Can Be Improved at NASA’s Langley Research Center (No. PLRD-82-56). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pestano, A. C. (2017). The Utilization of a Web-Based Internet Application to Improve Access and Efficiency of In-Home Care Services Provided by Personal Care Aides (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2000, October 4). Sophie Koulomzin Dies at 96; Orthodox Christian Educator. New York Times, p. B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schwarz 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Rotenberg and Yakir 2010; Schwarz 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rotenberg and Yakir 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Multani et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheory and Society
AbbreviationTheory Soc.
ISSN (print)0304-2421
ISSN (online)1573-7853
Sociology and Political Science

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