How to format your references using the Theory and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theory and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crampton, J. (2011). Paleontology. What drives biodiversity changes? Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6059), 1073–1074.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ferreira, P. G., & Starkman, G. D. (2009). Einstein’s theory of gravity and the problem of missing mass. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5954), 812–815.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kennedy, S., Wang, D., & Ruvkun, G. (2004). A conserved siRNA-degrading RNase negatively regulates RNA interference in C. elegans. Nature, 427(6975), 645–649.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Abu-Elheiga, L., Matzuk, M. M., Abo-Hashema, K. A., & Wakil, S. J. (2001). Continuous fatty acid oxidation and reduced fat storage in mice lacking acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5513), 2613–2616.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burger, M., Graeber, B., & Schindlmayr, G. (2014). Managing Energy Risk. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zhang, J. Y. (2015). Tensegrity Structures: Form, Stability, and Symmetry. (M. Ohsaki, Ed.) (Vol. 6). Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Chiang, C. C., & Kawa, J. (2007). Variability & Parametric Yield. In J. Kawa (Ed.), Design for Manufacturability and Yield for Nano-Scale CMOS (pp. 151–168). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theory and Society.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, October 17). The World’s Oldest Panda In Captivity Has Died. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Telecommunications: Process by Which Mergers of Local Telephone Companies Are Reviewed (No. RCED-99-223). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
White, B. D. (2015). Implementation of Positive Behavior Intervention and Support at the High School Level (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2016, September 29). Regrets? She Has a Big One. New York Times, p. C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crampton 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Crampton 2011; Ferreira and Starkman 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ferreira and Starkman 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Abu-Elheiga et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheory and Society
AbbreviationTheory Soc.
ISSN (print)0304-2421
ISSN (online)1573-7853
Sociology and Political Science

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