How to format your references using the Theory and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theory and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, C. (2004). Running interference on the genome. Nature, 428(6979), 225.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richardson, M. I., & Wilson, R. J. (2002). A topographically forced asymmetry in the martian circulation and climate. Nature, 416(6878), 298–301.
A journal article with 3 authors
Preusser, F., Radies, D., & Matter, A. (2002). A 160,000-year record of dune development and atmospheric circulation in Southern Arabia. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5575), 2018–2020.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lowenstein, T. K., Timofeeff, M. N., Brennan, S. T., Hardie, L. A., & Demicco, R. V. (2001). Oscillations in Phanerozoic seawater chemistry: evidence from fluid inclusions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5544), 1086–1088.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shapiro, I. M. (2016). Energy Audits and Improvements for Commercial Buildings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tehranipoor, M. (2014). Integrated Circuit Authentication: Hardware Trojans and Counterfeit Detection. (H. Salmani & X. Zhang, Eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Chik, D., Tripathi, G. N., & Wagatsuma, H. (2013). A Method to Deal with Prospective Risks at Home in Robotic Observations by Using a Brain-Inspired Model. In M. Lee, A. Hirose, Z.-G. Hou, & R. M. Kil (Eds.), Neural Information Processing: 20th International Conference, ICONIP 2013, Daegu, Korea, November 3-7, 2013. Proceedings, Part III (pp. 33–40). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theory and Society.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 4). Male Hummingbirds Use Beaks As Daggers To Stab Opponents’ Throats. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Tobacco Product Regulation: Most FDA Spending Funded Public Education, Regulatory Science, and Compliance and Enforcement Activities (No. GAO-14-561). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilday, D. (2014). Soulmaking within the destructive side of God seeing through monotheism’s holy warrior 9/11 to prehistory (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Risen, J. (2017, February 7). John Platt, 80, U.S. Spy Who Befriended Foe. New York Times, p. B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Richardson and Wilson 2002; Smith 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Richardson and Wilson 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Lowenstein et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheory and Society
AbbreviationTheory Soc.
ISSN (print)0304-2421
ISSN (online)1573-7853
Sociology and Political Science

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