How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kojevnikov, A. 2007. Russian science: the little ball made science bigger. Nature, 449: 542.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jamison, D.T., and Sandbu, M.E. 2001. Global health. WHO ranking of health system performance. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293: 1595–1596.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, S.F., Huri, D.A., and Snyder, S.H. 2005. Inducible nitric oxide synthase binds, S-nitrosylates, and activates cyclooxygenase-2. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310: 1966–1970.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ibata, R., Irwin, M., Lewis, G., Ferguson, A.M., and Tanvir, N. 2001. A giant stream of metal-rich stars in the halo of the galaxy M31. Nature, 412: 49–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Colloms, M., and Darlington, P. 2005. High Performance Loudspeakers. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,., West Sussex, England.
An edited book
Lollino, G., Arattano, M., Rinaldi, M., Giustolisi, O., Marechal, J.-C., and Grant, G.E. (Editors). 2015. Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Volume 3: River Basins, Reservoir Sedimentation and Water Resources. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Goñi, N., Arregui, I., Lezama, A., Arrizabalaga, H., and Moreno, G. 2009. Small Scale Vertical Behaviour of Juvenile Albacore in Relation to Their Biotic Environment in the Bay of Biscay. In Tagging and Tracking of Marine Animals with Electronic Devices. Edited by J.L. Nielsen, H. Arrizabalaga, N. Fragoso, A. Hobday, M. Lutcavage, and J. Sibert. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. pp. 51–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015, September 12. The First Human Head Transplant Has Been Scheduled For 2017. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Federal Communications Commission: Wireless Radio Services--Compatibility with Enhanced 911 Emergency Calling Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leonard, J.M. 2001. The Effect of Manufacturing Establishments on Local Area per Capita Personal Income in the U.S. 1967-1990. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., and Grynbaum, M.M. 2016, October 9. How NBC Was Scooped on Its Own ‘Access Hollywood’ Trump Video. New York Times,: B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kojevnikov 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Jamison and Sandbu 2001, Kojevnikov 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jamison and Sandbu 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Ibata et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences
AbbreviationCan. J. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)0008-4077
ISSN (online)1480-3313
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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