How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Callaway, E. 2013. Transmission: Control issues. Nature, 502: S16-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barthelme, D., and Sauer, R.T. 2012. Identification of the Cdc48•20S proteasome as an ancient AAA+ proteolytic machine. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337: 843–846.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meyer, J.C., Paillet, M., and Roth, S. 2005. Single-molecule torsional pendulum. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309: 1539–1541.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Karnik, S.K., Chen, H., McLean, G.W., Heit, J.J., Gu, X., Zhang, A.Y., Fontaine, M., Yen, M.H., and Kim, S.K. 2007. Menin controls growth of pancreatic beta-cells in pregnant mice and promotes gestational diabetes mellitus. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318: 806–809.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bittner, M. 2014. Temporality: Universals and Variation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Gussak, I., and Antzelevitch, C. (Editors). 2013. Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Volume 2: Diagnosis and Treatment. In 2nd ed. 2013. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Chan, K., Poernomo, I., Schmidt, H., and Jayaputera, J. 2005. A Model-Oriented Framework for Runtime Monitoring of Nonfunctional Properties. In Quality of Software Architectures and Software Quality: First International Conference on the Quality of Software Architectures, QoSA 2005, and Second International Workshop on Software Quality, SOQUA 2005, Erfurt, Germany, September 20-22, 2005. Proceedings. Edited by R. Reussner, J. Mayer, J.A. Stafford, S. Overhage, S. Becker, and P.J. Schroeder. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 38–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2015, October 22. The World’s First Wi-Fi Pavement Is Being Piloted In The UK. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Telecommunications: Direct Broadcast Satellite Subscribership Has Grown Rapidly, but Varies across Different Types of Markets. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hill, B. 2010. HIV-specific CD8 T-cell clonality, publicity and function under different vaccine modalities. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Healy, J., and Kovaleski, S.F. 2014, April 27. One Mother, 7 Dead Newborns and a Stunned Community in Utah. New York Times,: A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Callaway 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Barthelme and Sauer 2012, Callaway 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Barthelme and Sauer 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Karnik et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences
AbbreviationCan. J. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)0008-4077
ISSN (online)1480-3313
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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