How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elbaum, M. 2006. Materials science. Polymers in the pore. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314: 766–767.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hochedlinger, K., and Jaenisch, R. 2006. Nuclear reprogramming and pluripotency. Nature, 441: 1061–1067.
A journal article with 3 authors
Royle, N.J., Russell, A.F., and Wilson, A.J. 2014. The evolution of flexible parenting. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345: 776–781.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Buffetaut, E., Suteethorn, V., Cuny, G., Tong, H., Le Loeuff, J., Khansubha, S., and Jongautchariyakul, S. 2000. The earliest known sauropod dinosaur. Nature, 407: 72–74.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paladino, B. 2013. Corporate Performance Management Best Practices. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Arevalo, J.F. (Editor). 2009. Retinal Angiography and Optical Coherence Tomography. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Namy, O., and Rousset, J.-P. 2010. Specification of Standard Amino Acids by Stop Codons. In Recoding: Expansion of Decoding Rules Enriches Gene Expression. Edited by J.F. Atkins and R.F. Gesteland. Springer, New York, NY. pp. 79–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2017, February 28. WHO Releases Hit List Of 12 Bacteria That Pose Biggest Threat To Human Health. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Federal Student Aid: Progress in Integrating Pell Grant and Direct Loan Systems and Processes, but Critical Work Remains. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abuzainab, N. 2013. Energy and security aspects of wireless networks: Performance and tradeoffs. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K. 2002, December 19. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Top General In Chechnya Is Fired. New York Times,: A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Elbaum 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Hochedlinger and Jaenisch 2006, Elbaum 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hochedlinger and Jaenisch 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Buffetaut et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences
AbbreviationCan. J. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)0008-4077
ISSN (online)1480-3313
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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