How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Prather, M.J. 2003. Atmospheric science. An environmental experiment with H2? Science (New York, N.Y.), 302: 581–582.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brawley, C., and Matunis, E. 2004. Regeneration of male germline stem cells by spermatogonial dedifferentiation in vivo. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304: 1331–1334.
A journal article with 3 authors
Levis, R.J., Menkir, G.M., and Rabitz, H. 2001. Selective bond dissociation and rearrangement with optimally tailored, strong-field laser pulses. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292: 709–713.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Antoci, V., Handler, G., Campante, T.L., Thygesen, A.O., Moya, A., Kallinger, T., Stello, D., Grigahcène, A., Kjeldsen, H., Bedding, T.R., Lüftinger, T., Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., Catanzaro, G., Frasca, A., De Cat, P., Uytterhoeven, K., Bruntt, H., Houdek, G., Kurtz, D.W., Lenz, P., Kaiser, A., Van Cleve, J., Allen, C., and Clarke, B.D. 2011. The excitation of solar-like oscillations in a δSct star by efficient envelope convection. Nature, 477: 570–573.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sheldrake, P. 2014. The Spiritual City. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Vazquez Alvarez, A.J. 2015. An Introduction to Optimal Satellite Range Scheduling. Edited ByR.S. Erwin. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Debats, N.B., Kingma, I., Beek, P.J., and Smeets, J.B.J. 2012. The Precision of “Haptic” Rod Length Perception Is Reduced by Lack of Visual Precision. In Haptics: Perception, Devices, Mobility, and Communication: International Conference, EuroHaptics 2012, Tampere, Finland, June 13-15, 2012 Proceedings, Part II. Edited by P. Isokoski and J. Springare. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 19–24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2017, May 5. Physics Of Poo: Why It Takes You And An Elephant The Same Amount Of Time. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Electronic Disability Claims Processing: SSA Is Proceeding with Its Accelerated Systems Initiative but Needs to Address Operational Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McClenahan, A. 2017. The Impact of Media Promulgated Fear on the Psyche: Love Will Prevail. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bordewich, F.M. 2017, August 14. Debate Prep. New York Times,: BR21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Prather 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Prather 2003, Brawley and Matunis 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brawley and Matunis 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Antoci et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences
AbbreviationCan. J. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)0008-4077
ISSN (online)1480-3313
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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