How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jia, H. 2015. Alliances for scientific success. Nature, 528: S187-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Birney, E., and Soranzo, N. 2015. Human genomics: The end of the start for population sequencing. Nature, 526: 52–53.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sachs, R., Lin, Z., and Shi, J. 2014. Ferroelectric-like SrTiO3 surface dipoles probed by graphene. Scientific reports, 4: 3657.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bull, I.D., Parekh, N.R., Hall, G.H., Ineson, P., and Evershed, R.P. 2000. Detection and classification of atmospheric methane oxidizing bacteria in soil. Nature, 405: 175–178.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yalaoui, A., Chehade, H., Yalaoui, F., and Amodeo, L. 2012. Optimization of Logistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kümmel, G., and Giegerich, B. (Editors). 2013. The Armed Forces: Towards a Post-Interventionist Era? Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden.
A chapter in an edited book
Sun, Z., and Wang, F. 2015. A Comparative Study of Features and Distance Metrics for Trajectory Clustering in Open Video Domains. In New Research in Multimedia and Internet Systems. Edited by A. Zgrzywa, K. Choroś, and A. Siemiński. Springer International Publishing, Cham. pp. 47–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2016, December 6. Al Gore Tells IFLScience, When It Comes To Climate Change, “We Will Win.” IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1971. Computer Simulations, War Gaming, and Contract Studies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, Y. 2017. Lexical Stress Features Affecting the Recognition of English Loanwords in Korean by Native English Hearers. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Flegenheimer, M. 2017, October 9. On Trump’s Right Flank, a Survivor Well Attuned to Resentment. New York Times,: A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jia 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Birney and Soranzo 2015, Jia 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Birney and Soranzo 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Bull et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences
AbbreviationCan. J. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)0008-4077
ISSN (online)1480-3313
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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