How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Teichert, S. 2014. Hollow rhodoliths increase Svalbard’s shelf biodiversity. Scientific reports, 4: 6972.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karsenti, E., and Vernos, I. 2001. The mitotic spindle: a self-made machine. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294: 543–547.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gilg, O., Hanski, I., and Sittler, B. 2003. Cyclic dynamics in a simple vertebrate predator-prey community. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302: 866–868.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kondo, T., Khasanov, R., Takeuchi, T., Schmalian, J., and Kaminski, A. 2009. Competition between the pseudogap and superconductivity in the high-T(c) copper oxides. Nature, 457: 296–300.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dean, J.R. 2005. Practical Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy: Dean/Plasma. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Mann, G.S., Blair, J.C., and Garden, A.S. (Editors). 2012. Imaging of Gynecological Disorders in Infants and Children. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Gauravaram, P., and Knudsen, L.R. 2009. On Randomizing Hash Functions to Strengthen the Security of Digital Signatures. In Advances in Cryptology - EUROCRYPT 2009: 28th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Cologne, Germany, April 26-30, 2009. Proceedings. Edited by A. Joux. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 88–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2016, May 15. Good Tests Make Children Fail – Here’s Why. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Federal Actions Needed to Ensure Safety and Expand Their Potential Uses within the National Airspace System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Casem, J. 2009. Moku Ka Pawa: Drawn to the Light. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K. 2010, September 19. Achieving Techno-Literacy. New York Times,: MM21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Teichert 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Karsenti and Vernos 2001, Teichert 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Karsenti and Vernos 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Kondo et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Earth Sciences
AbbreviationCan. J. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)0008-4077
ISSN (online)1480-3313
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

Other styles