How to format your references using the Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pennisi, E. 2000. GENOMICS: Rat Genome Off to an Early Start. Science (New York, N.Y.) 289: 1267b–9b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwalb, Nina K., and Friedrich Temps. 2008. Base sequence and higher-order structure induce the complex excited-state dynamics in DNA. Science (New York, N.Y.) 322: 243–245.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiao, Youping, Yi Wang, and Daniel J. Felleman. 2003. A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque cortical area V2. Nature 421: 535–539.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mosher, Rebecca A., Charles W. Melnyk, Krystyna A. Kelly, Ruth M. Dunn, David J. Studholme, and David C. Baulcombe. 2009. Uniparental expression of PolIV-dependent siRNAs in developing endosperm of Arabidopsis. Nature 460: 283–286.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saliba, Anthony J., Joseph C. Corona, and Karen E. Johnson. 2010. Option Spread Strategies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wille, Robert. 2010. Towards a Design Flow for Reversible Logic. Edited by Rolf Drechsler. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
The Ziggurat Group, and Brenda Smith Myles. 2013. Building Social Skills Instruction for Children with Asperger Syndrome. In Asperger Syndrome: A Guide for Professionals and Families, ed. Raymond W. DuCharme and Thomas P. Gullotta, 91–111. Issues in Children’s and Families’ Lives. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2013. Creative Ways to Battle Superbugs. IFLScience. IFLScience. October 24.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Traffic Management: Federal Policies to Encourage Low-Cost Approaches Need to Be Strengthened. PEMD-91-26BR. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simmons, Christopher. 2008. Correlates and predictors of cognitive complexity among counseling and social work students in graduate training programs. Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Harris, Gardiner, John Schwartz, Jackie Calmes, and Jonathan Martin. 2016. Donald Trump Holds ‘Thank You’ Rally in Cincinnati, and Announces His Pick for Defense Secretary. New York Times, December 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Medicine and Bioethics
ISSN (print)1386-7415
ISSN (online)1573-1200
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Issues, ethics and legal aspects

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