How to format your references using the Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel. 2006. Neuroscience. Neuron, know thy neighbor. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311: 1560–1562.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jenkins, R., and A. M. Burton. 2008. 100% accuracy in automatic face recognition. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319: 435.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reinisch, K. M., M. L. Nibert, and S. C. Harrison. 2000. Structure of the reovirus core at 3.6 A resolution. Nature 404: 960–967.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Birney, E., A. Bateman, M. E. Clamp, and T. J. Hubbard. 2001. Mining the draft human genome. Nature 409: 827–828.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Utsuro, Masahiko, and Vladimir K. Ignatovich. 2010. Handbook of Neutron Optics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Anderson, Robert, Juliet Brodie, Edvar Onsøyen, and Alan T. Critchley, ed. 2007. Eighteenth International Seaweed Symposium: Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Seaweed Symposium, held in Bergen, Norway, 20 – 25 June 2004. Vol. 1. Developments in Applied Phycology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
JimÉnez, Rafael M., Susan Connolly, Johan G. Blickman, and Yvonne L. Hoogeveen. 2008. Accessory Organs of Digestion. In Radiological Imaging of the Digestive Tract in Infants and Children, ed. Annick S. Devos and Johan G. Blickman, 133–165. Medical Radiology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2016. Say Hello To Your Four Newly Named Elements Of The Periodic Table. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 9.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak Needs to Improve Its Accountability for Taxpayer Relief Act Funds. RCED/AIMD-00-78. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lizarraga, David. 2017. Effects of large inedible particles on the feeding performance of echinodem larvae. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2002. One Week of Silent Soccer Seems to Be Quite Enough. New York Times, May 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Medicine and Bioethics
ISSN (print)1386-7415
ISSN (online)1573-1200
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Issues, ethics and legal aspects

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