How to format your references using the Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abraham, Robert T. 2015. Cell biology. Making sense of amino acid sensing. Science (New York, N.Y.) 347: 128–129.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zinkernagel, R. M., and H. Hengartner. 2001. Regulation of the immune response by antigen. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293: 251–253.
A journal article with 3 authors
Abou Chakra, Maria, Christian Hilbe, and Arne Traulsen. 2014. Plastic behaviors in hosts promote the emergence of retaliatory parasites. Scientific reports 4: 4251.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhou, Qi, Jean-Paul Renard, Gaëlle Le Friec, Vincent Brochard, Nathalie Beaujean, Yacine Cherifi, Alexandre Fraichard, and Jean Cozzi. 2003. Generation of fertile cloned rats by regulating oocyte activation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 302: 1179.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dao, Tien Tuan, and Marie-Christine Ho Ba Tho. 2014. Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Maricau, Elie. 2013. Analog IC Reliability in Nanometer CMOS. Edited by Georges Gielen. Analog Circuits and Signal Processing. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cuevas, Erik, Daniel Zaldívar, and Marco Perez-Cisneros. 2016. Ellipse Detection on Images Inspired by the Collective Animal Behavior. In Applications of Evolutionary Computation in Image Processing and Pattern Recognition, ed. Daniel Zaldívar and Marco Perez-Cisneros, 53–77. Intelligent Systems Reference Library. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. Centuries-Old Skeletons Reveal How Dissection Tools Improved. IFLScience. IFLScience. February 18.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. Geographic Information Systems: Status at Selected Agencies. IMTEC-90-74FS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bourne, Bea B. 2009. Phenomenological study of response to organizational change: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Southall, Ashley. 2016. Police Ease Rules on Beards and Turbans for Religious Officers. New York Times, December 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Medicine and Bioethics
ISSN (print)1386-7415
ISSN (online)1573-1200
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Issues, ethics and legal aspects

Other styles