How to format your references using the Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russo, Eugene. 2005. Capital collaboration Washington DC. Nature 433: 664–665.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gupta, Vikas, and Kenneth D. Poss. 2012. Clonally dominant cardiomyocytes direct heart morphogenesis. Nature 484: 479–484.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yartsev, Michael M., Menno P. Witter, and Nachum Ulanovsky. 2011. Grid cells without theta oscillations in the entorhinal cortex of bats. Nature 479: 103–107.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kartal, Boran, Wouter J. Maalcke, Naomi M. de Almeida, Irina Cirpus, Jolein Gloerich, Wim Geerts, Huub J. M. Op den Camp, et al. 2011. Molecular mechanism of anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Nature 479: 127–130.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davis, Robert A. 2015. Demand-Driven Inventory Optimization and Replenishment. Hoboken, New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Peris-Ortiz, Marta, and José Álvarez-García, ed. 2014. Action-Based Quality Management: Strategy and Tools for Continuous Improvement. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Couprie, Marie-Emmanuelle, and Luca Giannessi. 2015. Seeding Free Electron Lasers with High Order Harmonics Generated in Gas. In Optical Technologies for Extreme-Ultraviolet and Soft X-ray Coherent Sources, ed. Federico Canova and Luca Poletto, 79–113. Springer Series in Optical Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. Genetic Variants That Influence Size of Brain Structures Have Been Discovered. IFLScience. IFLScience. January 22.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Self-Sufficiency: Opportunities and Disincentives on the Road to Economic Independence. HRD-93-23. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gillespie, Laverne. 2014. Trust in Leadership: Investigation of Andragogical Learning and Implications for Student Placement Outcomes. Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, Ben. 2017. Azarenka Pulls Out of the Open Over a Custody Dispute. New York Times, August 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Medicine and Bioethics
ISSN (print)1386-7415
ISSN (online)1573-1200
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Issues, ethics and legal aspects

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