How to format your references using the Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vosshall, Leslie B. 2007. Into the mind of a fly. Nature 450: 193–197.
A journal article with 2 authors
Silphaduang, U., and E. J. Noga. 2001. Peptide antibiotics in mast cells of fish. Nature 414: 268–269.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koo, Bonwoo, Carol Nottenburg, and Philip G. Pardey. 2004. Intellectual property. Plants and intellectual property: an international appraisal. Science (New York, N.Y.) 306: 1295–1297.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Head, J. F., S. Inouye, K. Teranishi, and O. Shimomura. 2000. The crystal structure of the photoprotein aequorin at 2.3 A resolution. Nature 405: 372–376.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooke, Roger. 2007. Classical Algebra: Its Nature, Origins, and Uses. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tok, M. Evren, Lolwah R. M. Alkhater, and Leslie A. Pal, ed. 2016. Policy-Making in a Transformative State: The Case of Qatar. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Nielsen, Thorkild, and Niels Heine Kristensen. 2008. Ethical Traceability in the Bacon Supply Chain. In Ethical Traceability and Communicating Food, ed. Christian Coff, David Barling, Michiel Korthals, and Thorkild Nielsen, 83–123. The International Library of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Ethics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. Group Files Lawsuit Against Kansas For Teaching Science In Science Class. IFLScience. IFLScience. December 30.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Strategic Air Command: KC-135A Crash and the Need for SAC Air Show Regulations. NSIAD-88-172. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morr, Rosey. 2015. Age Discrimination: Prejudice Suppression in the Selection Process. Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Christopher. 2012. Ann Richards Film Recalls A Woman and Her Era. New York Times, August 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Medicine and Bioethics
ISSN (print)1386-7415
ISSN (online)1573-1200
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Issues, ethics and legal aspects

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