How to format your references using the Frontiers in Exercise Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Exercise Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lu, S. (2014). Zn2+ blocks annealing of complementary single-stranded DNA in a sequence-selective manner. Sci. Rep. 4, 5464.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kofoed, E. M., and Vance, R. E. (2011). Innate immune recognition of bacterial ligands by NAIPs determines inflammasome specificity. Nature 477, 592–595.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kwak, S.-H., Shen, R., and Schiefelbein, J. (2005). Positional signaling mediated by a receptor-like kinase in Arabidopsis. Science 307, 1111–1113.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sagar, D. M., Aoudjane, S., Gaudet, M., Aeppli, G., and Dalby, P. A. (2013). Optically induced thermal gradients for protein characterization in nanolitre-scale samples in microfluidic devices. Sci. Rep. 3, 2130.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Buckel, W., and Kleiner, R. (2012). Supraleitung. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
S, K. M. D. E. ed. (2014). Current Advances in Osteosarcoma. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sommerschuh, S., Kirchner, M., and Gliese, N. (2012). “Immunochemical Methods for the Detection of Midkine in Samples of Human Origin,” in Midkine: From Embryogenesis to Pathogenesis and Therapy, eds. M. Ergüven, T. Muramatsu, and A. Bilir (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 53–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Exercise Physiology.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017). Trial Provides Tentative Hope Of “Functional Cure” For Some People Living With HIV. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997). Space Surveillance: DOD and NASA Need Consolidated Requirements and a Coordinated Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salifu, A. (2008). Names that prick: Royal praise names in Dagbon, northern Ghana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, P. (2017). Investigation Takes On Gravity In Dangerous Phase for Trump. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lu, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Kofoed and Vance, 2011; Lu, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kofoed and Vance, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Sagar et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Exercise Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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