How to format your references using the Frontiers in Exercise Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Exercise Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grindlay, J. E. (2006). Astronomy. A neutron star in F-sharp. Science 311, 1876–1877.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yuan, H., and Marmorstein, R. (2013). Biochemistry. Red wine, toast of the town (again). Science 339, 1156–1157.
A journal article with 3 authors
Castelnovo, C., Moessner, R., and Sondhi, S. L. (2008). Magnetic monopoles in spin ice. Nature 451, 42–45.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li, Q., Li, Z., Li, N., Chen, X., Chen, P., Shen, X., et al. (2014). High-polarization-discriminating infrared detection using a single quantum well sandwiched in plasmonic micro-cavity. Sci. Rep. 4, 6332.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoffmann, W. (2014). The Economic Competitiveness of Renewable Energy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Marburg, S., and Nolte, B. eds. (2008). Computational Acoustics of Noise Propagation in Fluids - Finite and Boundary Element Methods. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, Y., Youn, W., Lim, J., Nam, Y., and Kwak, Y. (2009). “OpenTide China’s Pricing Decision-Making Support System 2.0 for Digital Industry in China,” in U- and E-Service, Science and Technology: International Conference, UNESST 2009, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2009, Jeju Island, Korea, December 10-12, 2009. Proceedings Communications in Computer and Information Science., eds. D. Ślęzak, T.-H. Kim, J. Ma, W.-C. Fang, F. E. Sandnes, B.-H. Kang, et al. (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 25–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Exercise Physiology.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015). Watch Live As An Enormous Asteroid Whizzes Past Earth This Halloween. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007). Surface Transportation: Strategies Are Available for Making Existing Road Infrastructure Perform Better. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sparks, G. A. (2008). Charismatic leadership: An exploratory investigation of the techniques of influence.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2017). Reviving World Cup Hopes Out of Thin Air. New York Times, D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grindlay, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Grindlay, 2006; Yuan and Marmorstein, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yuan and Marmorstein, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Exercise Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

Other styles