How to format your references using the Frontiers in Exercise Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Exercise Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lu, P. J. (2004). Early precision compound machine from ancient China. Science 304, 1638.
A journal article with 2 authors
McMurray, M. A., and Gottschling, D. E. (2003). An age-induced switch to a hyper-recombinational state. Science 301, 1908–1911.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maiorano, D., Moreau, J., and Méchali, M. (2000). XCDT1 is required for the assembly of pre-replicative complexes in Xenopus laevis. Nature 404, 622–625.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tzedakis, P. C., Hughen, K. A., Cacho, I., and Harvati, K. (2007). Placing late Neanderthals in a climatic context. Nature 449, 206–208.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Utas, G. (2006). Robust Communications Software. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Santos, N. C., Pasquini, L., Correia, A. C. M., and Romaniello, M. eds. (2008). Precision Spectroscopy in Astrophysics: Proceedings of the ESO/Lisbon/Aveiro Conference held in Aveiro, Portugal, 11–15 September 2006. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Portela, A. (2013). “Identity, Inclusion and Leadership,” in Leadership for Inclusive Education: Values, Vision and Voices, eds. E. Ottesen and R. Precey (Rotterdam: SensePublishers), 35–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Exercise Physiology.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016). Dramatic Stellar Cycle Of Death And Rebirth Captured By European Space Observatory. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995). Aviation Safety: FAA Can Be More Proactive in Promoting Aviation Safety. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Werbeck, K.-U. (2012). From rubble to revolutions and raves: Literary interrogations of German media ecologies.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sack, K. (2011). Deadly Twisters Renew Questions About Pressure on Emergency Budgets. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lu, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (McMurray and Gottschling, 2003; Lu, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McMurray and Gottschling, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Tzedakis et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Exercise Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

Other styles