How to format your references using the Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pulverer, B. 2000. “Signal Transduction. An Arresting Tale.” Nature 404 (6779): 714.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zuniga, Aimée, and Rolf Zeller. 2014. “Development. In Turing’s Hands--the Making of Digits.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345 (6196): 516–517.
A journal article with 3 authors
Keith, David W., Edward Parson, and M. Granger Morgan. 2010. “Research on Global Sun Block Needed Now.” Nature 463 (7280): 426–427.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wilhelm, Brian T., Samuel Marguerat, Stephen Watt, Falk Schubert, Valerie Wood, Ian Goodhead, Christopher J. Penkett, Jane Rogers, and Jürg Bähler. 2008. “Dynamic Repertoire of a Eukaryotic Transcriptome Surveyed at Single-Nucleotide Resolution.” Nature 453 (7199): 1239–1243.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sehgal, Vivek. 2011. Supply Chain as Strategic Asset. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Au, Whitlow W. L. 2008. Principles of Marine Bioacoustics. Edited by Mardi C. Hastings. Modern Acoustics and Signal Processing. New York, NY: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Borkar, Tushar, Hamidreza Mohseni, Junyeon Hwang, Thomas Scharf, Jaimie Tiley, Soon H. Hong, and Rajarshi Banerjee. 2016. “Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) / Graphene Nanoplatelet (GNP)-Nickel Nanocomposites: Structure Property Analysis.” In Advanced Composites for Aerospace, Marine, and Land Applications II, edited by T. Sano and T. S. Srivatsan, 53–79. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2017. “Pastor Discovers Giant 706-Carat Diamond In Sierra Leone.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Federal Research: Evaluation of Small Business Innovation Research Can Be Strengthened. T-RCED-99-198. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zellner, Kathleen M. 2008. “An Examination of Grade Distribution Patterns and Grade Inflation at a Baccalaureate Nursing Program.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oppel, Richard A., Jr., and Richard Pérez-Peña. 2016. “Chicago Releases Videos of Police Shootings.” New York Times, June 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pulverer 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Pulverer 2000; Zuniga and Zeller 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zuniga and Zeller 2014)
  • Three authors: (Keith, Parson, and Morgan 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wilhelm et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science
AbbreviationTheor. Issues Ergon.
ISSN (print)1463-922X
ISSN (online)1464-536X
ScopeHuman Factors and Ergonomics

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