How to format your references using the Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeWeerdt, Sarah. 2013. “Genetics: Written in Blood.” Nature 498 (7455): S4-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jensen, Kyle, and Fiona Murray. 2005. “Intellectual Property. Enhanced: Intellectual Property Landscape of the Human Genome.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 310 (5746): 239–240.
A journal article with 3 authors
Enquist, Brian J., John P. Haskell, and Bruce H. Tiffney. 2002. “General Patterns of Taxonomic and Biomass Partitioning in Extant and Fossil Plant Communities.” Nature 419 (6907): 610–613.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lloyd-Smith, James O., Dylan George, Kim M. Pepin, Virginia E. Pitzer, Juliet R. C. Pulliam, Andrew P. Dobson, Peter J. Hudson, and Bryan T. Grenfell. 2009. “Epidemic Dynamics at the Human-Animal Interface.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 326 (5958): 1362–1367.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Le Doeuff, René, and Mohamed El Hadi Zaïm. 2013. Rotating Electrical Machines. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
DeCapua, Andrea, ed. 2008. Grammar for Teachers: A Guide to American English for Native and Non-Native Speakers. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Kumar, Sunil, and Rachita Gulati. 2014. “Relevance of Non-Traditional Activities on the Efficiency of Indian Banks.” In Deregulation and Efficiency of Indian Banks, edited by Rachita Gulati, 167–200. India Studies in Business and Economics. New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “Hidden ‘Mantle Scars’ Can Come To Life And Cause Earthquakes.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. [Comments on FAA Employee’s Claim for Temporary Quarters Subsistence Expenses]. B-257914. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ellerbrook, Sharon Lynn. 2009. “Exploring the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Teacher Selection Tools: The Effects on the Total Group with a Focus on the Gender Sub-Groups.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams. 2012. “Tighter Rules Are Issued On Municipal Bond Deals.” New York Times, May 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DeWeerdt 2013).
This sentence cites two references (DeWeerdt 2013; Jensen and Murray 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jensen and Murray 2005)
  • Three authors: (Enquist, Haskell, and Tiffney 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lloyd-Smith et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science
AbbreviationTheor. Issues Ergon.
ISSN (print)1463-922X
ISSN (online)1464-536X
ScopeHuman Factors and Ergonomics

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