How to format your references using the Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. 2000. “Livermore Plans Radical Rescue for ‘mismanaged’ Laser Facility.” Nature 403 (6769): 469–470.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cook-Deegan, R. M., and S. J. McCormack. 2001. “Intellectual Property. Patents, Secrecy, and DNA.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5528): 217.
A journal article with 3 authors
Babu, M. Madan, Richard W. Kriwacki, and Rohit V. Pappu. 2012. “Structural Biology. Versatility from Protein Disorder.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 337 (6101): 1460–1461.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lambert, D. M., P. A. Ritchie, C. D. Millar, B. Holland, A. J. Drummond, and C. Baroni. 2002. “Rates of Evolution in Ancient DNA from Adélie Penguins.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5563): 2270–2273.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mohanty, Sanat, and Ranjana Ghosh. 2010. Planning a Scientific Career in Industry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tsao, G. T., Pingkai Ouyang, and Jian Chen, eds. 2010. Biotechnology in China II: Chemicals, Energy and Environment. Vol. 122. Advances in Biochemical Engineering / Biotechnology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Şen, Zekâi. 2013. “Innovative Wind Energy Models and Prediction Methodologies.” In Handbook of Wind Power Systems, edited by Panos M. Pardalos, Steffen Rebennack, Mario V. F. Pereira, Niko A. Iliadis, and Vijay Pappu, 67–126. Energy Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Celebrate 50 Years Of Humans Walking In Space With NASA.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Early Childhood Programs: Multiple Programs and Overlapping Target Groups. HEHS-95-4FS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Katukuri, Jayasimha. 2012. “Relationship Extraction and Link Discovery from Biomedical Literature.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, John. 2017. “A Guide to Graveside Tourism.” New York Times, September 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain 2000; Cook-Deegan and McCormack 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cook-Deegan and McCormack 2001)
  • Three authors: (Babu, Kriwacki, and Pappu 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lambert et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science
AbbreviationTheor. Issues Ergon.
ISSN (print)1463-922X
ISSN (online)1464-536X
ScopeHuman Factors and Ergonomics

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