How to format your references using the Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heyde, Markus. 2013. “Materials Science. Structure and Motion of a 2D Glass.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 342 (6155): 201–202.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson, Rachel I., and Roger A. Nicoll. 2002. “Endocannabinoid Signaling in the Brain.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5568): 678–682.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang, Chun Y., Michael A. Ayliffe, and Jeremy N. Timmis. 2003. “Direct Measurement of the Transfer Rate of Chloroplast DNA into the Nucleus.” Nature 422 (6927): 72–76.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Brown, Kyle S., Curtis W. Marean, Andy I. R. Herries, Zenobia Jacobs, Chantal Tribolo, David Braun, David L. Roberts, Michael C. Meyer, and Jocelyn Bernatchez. 2009. “Fire as an Engineering Tool of Early Modern Humans.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5942): 859–862.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wernecke, Roland. 2003. Industrielle Feuchtemessung. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Flannery, John A. 2015. Eco-Landscape Design. Edited by Karen M. Smith. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bosse, Stefan. 2015. “Design and Simulation of a Low-Resource Processing Platform for Mobile Multi-Agent Systems in Distributed Heterogeneous Networks.” In Agents and Artificial Intelligence: 6th International Conference, ICAART 2014, Angers, France, March 6-8, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Béatrice Duval, Jaap van den Herik, Stephane Loiseau, and Joaquim Filipe, 63–81. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “Rising Temperatures Lead To A Higher Proportion Of Girls Being Born Than Boys.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Federal Communications Commission: Federal Advisory Committees Follow Requirements, but FCC Should Improve Its Process for Appointing Committee Members. GAO-05-36. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abraham, Chacko. 2017. “How Are Nonresident African American Fathers Involved in Their Children’s Academic Success?” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2013. “No Nike Deal for Vaulter After He Puts Tape on Logo.” New York Times, August 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heyde 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Heyde 2013; Wilson and Nicoll 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilson and Nicoll 2002)
  • Three authors: (Huang, Ayliffe, and Timmis 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Brown et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science
AbbreviationTheor. Issues Ergon.
ISSN (print)1463-922X
ISSN (online)1464-536X
ScopeHuman Factors and Ergonomics

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