How to format your references using the Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCann, K. S. 2000. “The Diversity-Stability Debate.” Nature 405 (6783): 228–233.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hunter, C. A., and P. C. Mayers. 2001. “Knot Tied around an Octahedral Metal Centre.” Nature 411 (6839): 763.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bean, Jacob L., Eliza Miller-Ricci Kempton, and Derek Homeier. 2010. “A Ground-Based Transmission Spectrum of the Super-Earth Exoplanet GJ 1214b.” Nature 468 (7324): 669–672.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Xu, Qi, Fang Liu, Yuxiang Liu, Kaiyu Cui, Xue Feng, Wei Zhang, and Yidong Huang. 2013. “Broadband Light Absorption Enhancement in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Au-Ag Alloy Popcorn Nanoparticles.” Scientific Reports 3: 2112.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Markley, Nelson G. 2004. Principles of Differential Equations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Contopoulos, Ioannis, Denise Gabuzda, and Nikolaos Kylafis, eds. 2015. The Formation and Disruption of Black Hole Jets. Vol. 414. Astrophysics and Space Science Library. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Beckmann, D. 2011. “Non-Local Transport in Superconductor–Ferromagnet Hybrid Structures.” In Fundamentals of Superconducting Nanoelectronics, edited by Anatolie Sidorenko, 101–116. NanoScience and Technology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “New Material Made From 1 Billion Tiny Magnets Changes States Like Water.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. NASA’s Customer Satisfaction Measurements. NSIAD-97-81R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cervantes, Ignacio. 2013. “Flexural Retrofitting of Reinforced Concrete Structures Using Green Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Plates.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Michael. 1992. “Insult My Mom, Please.” New York Times, October 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McCann 2000).
This sentence cites two references (McCann 2000; Hunter and Mayers 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hunter and Mayers 2001)
  • Three authors: (Bean, Kempton, and Homeier 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Xu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science
AbbreviationTheor. Issues Ergon.
ISSN (print)1463-922X
ISSN (online)1464-536X
ScopeHuman Factors and Ergonomics

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