How to format your references using the Hong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mervis J. U.S. POSTDOCS: Report Urges Better Treatment, Status. Science. 2000 Sep 15;289(5486):1854b–5b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Diao A, Lowe M. Cell biology. The Golgi goes fission. Science. 2004 Jul 2;305(5680):48–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ikegami H, Tsutsumi Y, Kono K. Chiral symmetry breaking in superfluid 3He-A. Science. 2013 Jul 5;341(6141):59–62.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Campbell DB, Campbell BA, Carter LM, Margot JL, Stacy NJS. No evidence for thick deposits of ice at the lunar south pole. Nature. 2006 Oct 19;443(7113):835–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paret D, Riesco R. RFID and Contactless Smart Card Applications. Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Ríos-Mercado RZ, Ríos-Solís YA, editors. Just-in-Time Systems. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. XII, 308 p. (Springer Optimization and Its Applications; vol. 60).
A chapter in an edited book
Mason A, Shaw A, Al-Shamma’a AI. Inventory Management in the Packaged Gas Industry Using Wireless Sensor Networks. In: Mukhopadhyay SC, Leung H, editors. Advances in Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 75–100. (Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Andrews R. The US Set To Miss Its 2025 Carbon-Cutting Goals – But Only Just. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Job Corps: Better Targeted Career Training and Improved Preenrollment Information Could Enhance Female Residential Student Recruitment and Retention. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Jun. Report No.: GAO-09-470.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung J. Understanding caregiving for older adults with dementia in Korean American families [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. In Chinatown, Bulgarian Red Means Wine, Not Politics. New York Times. 2000 Sep 3;147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationHong Kong J. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1027-8230

Other styles