How to format your references using the Hong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Myers MG Jr. Cell biology. Moonlighting in mitochondria. Science. 2009 Feb 6;323(5915):723–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Parrish DD, Zhu T. Climate change. Clean air for megacities. Science. 2009 Oct 30;326(5953):674–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nishimune H, Sanes JR, Carlson SS. A synaptic laminin-calcium channel interaction organizes active zones in motor nerve terminals. Nature. 2004 Dec 2;432(7017):580–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu ZQ, Liu G, Qu RT, Zhang ZF, Wu SJ, Zhang T. Microstructural percolation assisted breakthrough of trade-off between strength and ductility in CuZr-based metallic glass composites. Sci Rep. 2014 Feb 25;4:4167.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
von Eye A, Mun EY. Log-Linear Modeling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Gruber CW, Clark MG, Klempe SH, Valsiner J, editors. Constraints of Agency: Explorations of Theory in Everyday Life. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XV, 276 p. 16 illus., 10 illus. in color. (Annals of Theoretical Psychology; vol. 12).
A chapter in an edited book
Berman DM. Isolation of Pancreatic Islets from Nonhuman Primates. In: Ramírez-Domínguez M, editor. Pancreatic Islet Isolation: From the Mouse to the Clinic. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 57–66. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Davis J. Over 95% Of The World’s Population Suffer From Health Problems [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: DHS Has Taken Steps to Enhance International Aviation Security and Facilitate Compliance with International Standards, but Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010 Dec. Report No.: GAO-11-238T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krishna S. Pediatric Pal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
James G. Talking and Driving: Growing Road Menace? New York Times. 2000 Mar 26;14NJ1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationHong Kong J. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1027-8230

Other styles