How to format your references using the Hong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Epstein IR. Chemistry. Can droplets and bubbles think? Science. 2007 Feb 9;315(5813):775–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sato T, Clevers H. Growing self-organizing mini-guts from a single intestinal stem cell: mechanism and applications. Science. 2013 Jun 7;340(6137):1190–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mayor M, Lovis C, Santos NC. Doppler spectroscopy as a path to the detection of Earth-like planets. Nature. 2014 Sep 18;513(7518):328–35.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Orlov T, Yakovlev V, Hochstein S, Zohary E. Macaque monkeys categorize images by their ordinal number. Nature. 2000 Mar 2;404(6773):77–80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barone S, Franco EL. Statistical and Managerial Techniques for Six Sigma Methodology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Schmidt HHHW, Hofmann F, Stasch J-P, editors. cGMP: Generators, Effectors and Therapeutic Implications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. XIV, 583 p. 61 illus., 6 illus. in color. (Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology; vol. 191).
A chapter in an edited book
Filiposka S, Mishev A, Juiz C. Opportunities and Challenges for Green HPC. In: Bogdanova AM, Gjorgjevikj D, editors. ICT Innovations 2014: World of Data. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 45–54. (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Surinam Toad Childbirth: Trypophobics Need Not Apply. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Better Use of Information Technology Can Reduce the Burden of Federal Paperwork. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 Apr. Report No.: GGD-83-39.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Griess JO. A canine audience: The effect of Animal-Assisted Therapy on reading progress among students identified with learning disabilities [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. Trump Inspires Cottage Book Trade. New York Times. 2017 Mar 1;C24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationHong Kong J. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1027-8230

Other styles