How to format your references using the Hong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Smaglik P. Starting the brain gain. Nature. 2004 Jan 15;427(6971):267.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Weaver AJ, Hillaire-Marcel C. Ocean science. Global warming and the next ice age. Science. 2004 Apr 16;304(5669):400–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Parker JD, Burkepile DE, Hay ME. Opposing effects of native and exotic herbivores on plant invasions. Science. 2006 Mar 10;311(5766):1459–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Yeh S-W, Kug J-S, Dewitte B, Kwon M-H, Kirtman BP, Jin F-F. El Niño in a changing climate. Nature. 2009 Sep 24;461(7263):511–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Saint-Dizier P. Musical Rhetoric. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Schwartz RA. The New Nasdaq Marketplace. Byrne JA, Colaninno A, editors. New York, NY: Springer; 2007. XIV, 178 p. (Zicklin School of Business Financial Markets Series).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Malek SK, Tullius SG. Surgical Management of the Renal Transplant Recipient. In: Chandraker A, Sayegh MH, Singh AK, editors. Core Concepts in Renal Transplantation. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012. p. 85–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Giant Dinosaurs’ Arrival In Australia Suggests A Period Of Antarctic Warming [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/giant-dinosaurs-arrival-in-australia-suggests-a-period-of-antarctic-warming/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Public Safety Communications: Preliminary Information on FirstNet’s Efforts to Establish a Nationwide Broadband Network. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Mar. Report No.: GAO-15-380T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Walsh EF. The development of comprehensive criminal justice leadership standards: A modified Delphi study approach [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Craig S, Chen DW. Trump in New York: Deep Roots, but Little Sway. New York Times. 2016 Feb 23;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationHong Kong J. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1027-8230
Scope

Other styles