How to format your references using the Hong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mooij H. Physics. The road to quantum computing. Science. 2005 Feb 25;307(5713):1210–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gratzer W, Nathan DG. Obituary: Fred S. Rosen (1930-2005). Nature. 2005 Jun 23;435(7045):1044.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barrett RDH, Rogers SM, Schluter D. Natural selection on a major armor gene in threespine stickleback. Science. 2008 Oct 10;322(5899):255–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ahn SJ, Moon P, Kim T-H, Kim H-W, Shin H-C, Kim EH, et al. Dirac electrons in a dodecagonal graphene quasicrystal. Science. 2018 Aug 24;361(6404):782–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yan SY. Computational Number Theory and Modern Cryptography. Fusionopolis Walk, Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.; 2012.
An edited book
Goldstein S, Naglieri JA, editors. Handbook of Executive Functioning. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. XIX, 567 p. 43 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
West BJ. Control from an Allometric Perspective. In: Sternad D, editor. Progress in Motor Control: A Multidisciplinary Perspective. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. p. 57–82. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Fang J. 4,200-Year-Old Egyptian Skeleton Shows Signs of Breast Cancer [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. James Webb Space Telescope: Actions Needed to Improve Cost Estimate and Oversight of Test and Integration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Dec. Report No.: GAO-13-4.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Delcambre ML. Finite Difference Schemes for a Structured Model of Mycobacterium marinum [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Code of Honor, Not a Referee, Governs Curlers. New York Times. 2014 Jan 23;B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHong Kong Journal of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationHong Kong J. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1027-8230

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