How to format your references using the Comparative Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Graham, Jesse. 2014. “Behavior. Morality beyond the Lab.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345 (6202): 1242.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zimmerman, Guy A., and Andrew S. Weyrich. 2010. “Immunology. Arsonists in Rheumatoid Arthritis.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 327 (5965): 528–529.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Ching-Wei, Shuk-Man Ka, and Ann Chen. 2014. “Robust Image Registration of Biological Microscopic Images.” Scientific Reports 4 (August): 6050.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Dudley, Carol A., Claudia Erbel-Sieler, Sandi Jo Estill, Martin Reick, Paul Franken, Sinae Pitts, and Steven L. McKnight. 2003. “Altered Patterns of Sleep and Behavioral Adaptability in NPAS2-Deficient Mice.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5631): 379–383.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh, S. A., and M. Azizur Rahman. 2010. An Introduction to Wavelet Modulated Inverters. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Manzini, Nicolò de, ed. 2013. Rectal Cancer: Strategy and Surgical Techniques. Updates in Surgery. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kokilashvili, Vakhtang, Alexander Meskhi, Humberto Rafeiro, and Stefan Samko. 2016. “Two-Weight Estimates.” In Integral Operators in Non-Standard Function Spaces: Volume 1: Variable Exponent Lebesgue and Amalgam Spaces, edited by Alexander Meskhi, Humberto Rafeiro, and Stefan Samko, 219–295. Operator Theory: Advances and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Can Elusive Cancer Stem Cells Seed New Tumours Months After Chemotherapy?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. HHS’s Efforts to Promote Health Information Technology and Legal Barriers to Its Adoption. GAO-04-991R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alexandre, Kelly Marie. 2009. “Identifying Mechanisms Regulating Wnt Signaling during Postembryonic Development.” Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, James. 2016. “When There’s Nothing Like a Good Cry.” New York Times, September 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Graham 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Graham 2014; Zimmerman and Weyrich 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zimmerman and Weyrich 2010)
  • Three authors: (Wang, Ka, and Chen 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Dudley et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Education
AbbreviationComp. Educ.
ISSN (print)0305-0068
ISSN (online)1360-0486

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