How to format your references using the Comparative Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johansen, Joshua P. 2013. “Neuroscience: Anxiety Is the Sum of Its Parts.” Nature 496 (7444): 174–175.
A journal article with 2 authors
Minetti, Alberto E., and Luca P. Ardigó. 2002. “Halteres Used in Ancient Olympic Long Jump.” Nature 420 (6912): 141–142.
A journal article with 3 authors
del Campo, Adolfo, Malcolm G. Boshier, and Avadh Saxena. 2014. “Bent Waveguides for Matter-Waves: Supersymmetric Potentials and Reflectionless Geometries.” Scientific Reports 4 (June): 5274.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sun, Weidong, Richard J. Arculus, Vadim S. Kamenetsky, and Raymond A. Binns. 2004. “Release of Gold-Bearing Fluids in Convergent Margin Magmas Prompted by Magnetite Crystallization.” Nature 431 (7011): 975–978.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mazer, Arthur. 2006. Electric Power Planning for Regulated and Deregulated Markets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Barkeshli, Kasra. 2015. Advanced Electromagnetics and Scattering Theory. Edited by Sina Khorasani. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Eppelbaum, Lev, and Boris Khesin. 2012. “Regional Physical-Geological Models and Regioning.” In Geophysical Studies in the Caucasus, edited by Boris Khesin, 139–217. Lecture Notes in Earth System Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “How You Can Help Make A Movie About Bill Nye.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. Space Acquisitions: DOD Faces Challenges in Fully Realizing Benefits of Satellite Acquisition Improvements. GAO-12-563T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dias, Joy. 2014. “Factors Associated with Poor Oral Health among Older Adults.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stephens, John. 2017. “Secrets of the Metropolis.” New York Times, May 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Johansen 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Johansen 2013; Minetti and Ardigó 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Minetti and Ardigó 2002)
  • Three authors: (del Campo, Boshier, and Saxena 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Sun et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Education
AbbreviationComp. Educ.
ISSN (print)0305-0068
ISSN (online)1360-0486

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