How to format your references using the Comparative Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeFelipe, Javier. 2010. “From the Connectome to the Synaptome: An Epic Love Story.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 330 (6008): 1198–1201.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maechler, P., and C. B. Wollheim. 2001. “Mitochondrial Function in Normal and Diabetic Beta-Cells.” Nature 414 (6865): 807–812.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stern, Peter, Pamela J. Hines, and John Travis. 2014. “The Aging Brain. Introduction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 346 (6209): 566–567.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bakal, Chris, John Aach, George Church, and Norbert Perrimon. 2007. “Quantitative Morphological Signatures Define Local Signaling Networks Regulating Cell Morphology.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316 (5832): 1753–1756.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dods, Richard F. 2013. Understanding Diabetes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gabrys, Bogdan, Kauko Leiviskä, and Jens Strackeljan, eds. 2005. Do Smart Adaptive Systems Exist?: Best Practice for Selection and Combination of Intelligent Methods. Vol. 173. Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Andreo, Rogelio Bernal. 2013. “Bringing Out Faint Large-Scale Structure.” In Lessons from the Masters: Current Concepts in Astronomical Image Processing, edited by Robert Gendler, 97–113. The Patrick Moore Practical Astronomy Series. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Promising HIV Therapy So Effective It Could Be Used As A Vaccine.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Comments on the Office of Personnel Management’s February 20, 2008 Report to Congress Regarding the Retirement Systems Modernization. GAO-08-576R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boerner, Carole L. 2013. “The Organizational Culture and Leadership Values That Impact Native American Water Utility Organizations.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, Sophia. 2007. “Rostropovich Is Laid to Rest Near Another Russian Titan.” New York Times, April 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DeFelipe 2010).
This sentence cites two references (DeFelipe 2010; Maechler and Wollheim 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maechler and Wollheim 2001)
  • Three authors: (Stern, Hines, and Travis 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Bakal et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Education
AbbreviationComp. Educ.
ISSN (print)0305-0068
ISSN (online)1360-0486

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