How to format your references using the Comparative Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaanen, Jan. 2009. “Physics. Fast Electrons Tie Quantum Knots.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5916): 888–890.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheng, Zhi, and Thomas M. Menees. 2004. “RNA Branching and Debranching in the Yeast Retrovirus-like Element Ty1.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5655): 240–243.
A journal article with 3 authors
Merkle, Florian T., Zaman Mirzadeh, and Arturo Alvarez-Buylla. 2007. “Mosaic Organization of Neural Stem Cells in the Adult Brain.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 317 (5836): 381–384.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Klein, Matthias W., Christian Enkrich, Martin Wegener, and Stefan Linden. 2006. “Second-Harmonic Generation from Magnetic Metamaterials.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5786): 502–504.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Permyakov, Eugene A., and Robert H. Kretsinger. 2010. Calcium Binding Proteins. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Marano, Pierpaolo, Ioannis Rokas, and Peter Kochenburger, eds. 2016. The “Dematerialized” Insurance: Distance Selling and Cyber Risks from an International Perspective. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, Wenbin, and Chik How Tan. 2016. “A Secure Variant of Yasuda, Takagi and Sakurai’s Signature Scheme.” In Information Security and Cryptology: 11th International Conference, Inscrypt 2015, Beijing, China, November 1-3, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Dongdai Lin, Xiaofeng Wang, and Moti Yung, 75–89. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Education.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “These Infographics Show How Doomed The Arctic Really Is.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Social Security: Telephone Busy Signal Rates at Local SSA Field Offices. HRD-93-49. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Couch, Heather C. 2017. “Providers’ Acceptance of Smartphone Applications as a Supportive Strategy for Adolescent Asthma.” Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Weiner, Jonah. 2014. “A Fight Is Brewing.” New York Times, March 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zaanen 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Zaanen 2009; Cheng and Menees 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cheng and Menees 2004)
  • Three authors: (Merkle, Mirzadeh, and Alvarez-Buylla 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Klein et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Education
AbbreviationComp. Educ.
ISSN (print)0305-0068
ISSN (online)1360-0486

Other styles