How to format your references using the Comparative Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gray, Russell. 2005. “Evolution. Pushing the Time Barrier in the Quest for Language Roots.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5743): 2007–2008.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rybczynski, N., and R. R. Reisz. 2001. “Earliest Evidence for Efficient Oral Processing in a Terrestrial Herbivore.” Nature 411 (6838): 684–687.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cubitt, Toby S., David Perez-Garcia, and Michael M. Wolf. 2015. “Undecidability of the Spectral Gap.” Nature 528 (7581): 207–211.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Benvenuti, Federica, Stephanie Hugues, Marita Walmsley, Sandra Ruf, Luc Fetler, Michel Popoff, Victor L. J. Tybulewicz, and Sebastian Amigorena. 2004. “Requirement of Rac1 and Rac2 Expression by Mature Dendritic Cells for T Cell Priming.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5687): 1150–1153.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopkins, Bruce R. 2009. Starting and Managing a Nonprofit Organization. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zia, Asif Iqbal. 2016. Electrochemical Sensing: Carcinogens in Beverages. Edited by Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay. Vol. 20. Smart Sensors, Measurement and Instrumentation. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Craven, Mark. 2008. “Learning Expressive Models of Gene Regulation.” In Inductive Logic Programming: 18th International Conference, ILP 2008 Prague, Czech Republic, September 10-12, 2008 Proceedings, edited by Filip Železný and Nada Lavrač, 4–4. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Enemy Within: The Fungus That Lives In Your Mouth And Kills As Many As MRSA.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1982. Can the Federal Communications Commission Successfully Implement Its Computer II Decision? CED-82-38. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hong, Hea Jin. 2017. “Acrolein Modification of Human Apolipoprotein A-I Impairs Binding to Phosphatidylglycerol and Lipopolysaccharide of Gram-Negative Bacteria.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams. 2012. “New Jersey’s Pension Plan Is Said to Still Be in Trouble.” New York Times, December 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gray 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Gray 2005; Rybczynski and Reisz 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rybczynski and Reisz 2001)
  • Three authors: (Cubitt, Perez-Garcia, and Wolf 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Benvenuti et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Education
AbbreviationComp. Educ.
ISSN (print)0305-0068
ISSN (online)1360-0486

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