How to format your references using the Comparative Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huch, Meritxell. 2015. “Regenerative Biology: The Versatile and Plastic Liver.” Nature 517 (7533): 155–156.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jia, Tao, and Albert-László Barabási. 2013. “Control Capacity and a Random Sampling Method in Exploring Controllability of Complex Networks.” Scientific Reports 3: 2354.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bomfleur, Benjamin, Stephen McLoughlin, and Vivi Vajda. 2014. “Fossilized Nuclei and Chromosomes Reveal 180 Million Years of Genomic Stasis in Royal Ferns.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 343 (6177): 1376–1377.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hu, Haifeng, Dengxin Ji, Xie Zeng, Kai Liu, and Qiaoqiang Gan. 2013. “Rainbow Trapping in Hyperbolic Metamaterial Waveguide.” Scientific Reports 3 (February): 1249.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kirchner, Thomas. 2016. Merger Arbitrage. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ernst, Armin, and Felix J. F. Herth, eds. 2013. Principles and Practice of Interventional Pulmonology. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Glasl, Sebastian, and Magnus Anselm. 2008. “The Droplet Spectrometer – a Measuring Concept for Detailed Precipitation Characterization.” In Precipitation: Advances in Measurement, Estimation and Prediction, edited by Silas Michaelides, 83–99. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Education.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2015. “The Taurid Meteor Shower Will Be Putting On A ‘Once In A Decade’ Show This November - Here’s How To Watch.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service’s Fiscal Year 2009 Expenditure Plan. GAO-09-281. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dilenschneider, Anne Marie. 2010. “Refusing to Be Put aside: Women and the Meaning of Betrayal.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2004. “World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Reporter Stabbed.” New York Times, July 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huch 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Huch 2015; Jia and Barabási 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jia and Barabási 2013)
  • Three authors: (Bomfleur, McLoughlin, and Vajda 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Education
AbbreviationComp. Educ.
ISSN (print)0305-0068
ISSN (online)1360-0486

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