How to format your references using the Theoretical Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lehmann J (2007) A handful of carbon. Nature 447:143–144
A journal article with 2 authors
Lomakin IB, Steitz TA (2013) The initiation of mammalian protein synthesis and mRNA scanning mechanism. Nature 500:307–311
A journal article with 3 authors
Marhas KK, Goswami JN, Davis AM (2002) Short-lived nuclides in hibonite grains from Murchison: evidence for solar system evolution. Science 298:2182–2185
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schulz KG, Zondervan I, Gerringa LJA, et al (2004) Effect of trace metal availability on coccolithophorid calcification. Nature 430:673–676

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chassaing R (2004) Digital Signal Processing and Applications with the C6713 and C6416 DSK. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ayala JL, García-Cámara B, Prieto M, et al (eds) (2011) Integrated Circuit and System Design. Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization, and Simulation: 21st International Workshop, PATMOS 2011, Madrid, Spain, September 26-29, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Yu G, Liu Z, Yuan J (2015) Discriminative Orderlet Mining for Real-Time Recognition of Human-Object Interaction. In: Cremers D, Reid I, Saito H, Yang M-H (eds) Computer Vision -- ACCV 2014: 12th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Singapore, Singapore, November 1-5, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Part V. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 50–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Mathematical Theory Explains Wrinkle Patterning. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Fiscal Year 2014 Agreed-Upon Procedures: Excise Tax Distributions to the Airport and Airway Trust Fund and the Highway Trust Fund. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green JT (2010) The relationship between technology support and extent of technology integration into college-level foreign language curricula. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K (2007) Keep ’Em Coming. New York Times A23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lehmann 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Lehmann 2007; Lomakin and Steitz 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lomakin and Steitz 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Schulz et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Ecology
AbbreviationTheor. Ecol.
ISSN (print)1874-1738
ISSN (online)1874-1746
ScopeEcological Modelling
Ecology

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