How to format your references using the Theoretical Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haigh JD (2001) Climate variability and the influence of the Sun. Science 294:2109–2111
A journal article with 2 authors
Tanno K-I, Willcox G (2006) How fast was wild wheat domesticated? Science 311:1886
A journal article with 3 authors
Bibby TS, Nield J, Barber J (2001) Iron deficiency induces the formation of an antenna ring around trimeric photosystem I in cyanobacteria. Nature 412:743–745
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Shrivastava B, Jain KK, Kalra A, Kuhad RC (2014) Bioprocessing of wheat straw into nutritionally rich and digested cattle feed. Sci Rep 4:6360

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Galwey NW (2014) Introduction to Mixed Modelling. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Klinger JR, Frantz RP (eds) (2015) Diagnosis and Management of Pulmonary Hypertension. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Reussner R, Becker S (2006) Model-Based Software Development with Eclipse. In: Hofmeister C, Crnkovic I, Reussner R (eds) Quality of Software Architectures: Second International Conference on Quality of Software Architectures, QoSA 2006, Västerås, Sweden, June 27-29, 2006 Revised Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 5–6

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Ecology.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Edible Silk Coating Stops Fruit And Veg Going Moldy. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Space Shuttle: Costs for Hubble Servicing Mission and Implementation of Safety Recommendations Not Yet Definitive. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Conway AH (2014) Signs and symptoms of moral injury in female vietnam veterans: A qualitative examination of the nvvrs. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Woolfe Z, Tommasini A, Allen D, Oestreich JR (2016) Beautiful Music to Their Ears. New York Times C4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Haigh 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Haigh 2001; Tanno and Willcox 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tanno and Willcox 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Shrivastava et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Ecology
AbbreviationTheor. Ecol.
ISSN (print)1874-1738
ISSN (online)1874-1746
ScopeEcological Modelling

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