How to format your references using the Theoretical Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Velasquez-Manoff M (2015) Genetics: Relative risk. Nature 527:S116-7
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin T, Ruf I (2009) Paleontology. On the mammalian ear. Science 326:243–244
A journal article with 3 authors
Martincorena I, Seshasayee ASN, Luscombe NM (2012) Evidence of non-random mutation rates suggests an evolutionary risk management strategy. Nature 485:95–98
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gilbert DT, Killingsworth MA, Eyre RN, Wilson TD (2009) The surprising power of neighborly advice. Science 323:1617–1619

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grove LC (1997) Groups and Characters. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Murray KF, Horslen S (eds) (2014) Diseases of the Liver in Children: Evaluation and Management. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Hosseini H, Ulieru M (2012) Leveraging Domain Knowledge to Learn Normative Behavior: A Bayesian Approach. In: Vrancx P, Knudson M, Grześ M (eds) Adaptive and Learning Agents: International Workshop, ALA 2011, Held at AAMAS 2011, Taipei, Taiwan, May 2, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 70–84

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical Ecology.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) Is There Any Way To Tell If The FBI Have Read Your Email? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Natural Gas Pipelines: Greater Use of Instrumented Inspection Technology Can Improve Safety. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watkins D (2008) The common factors between coaching cultures and transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and high-performance organizational cultures. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Blinder A, Philipps D (2017) Marine Crash Victims: Young Fathers, a Humming Sergeant, a Proud Texan. New York Times A15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Velasquez-Manoff 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Martin and Ruf 2009; Velasquez-Manoff 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martin and Ruf 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Gilbert et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical Ecology
AbbreviationTheor. Ecol.
ISSN (print)1874-1738
ISSN (online)1874-1746
ScopeEcological Modelling

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