How to format your references using the Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. D. Schloss, “Microbiology: An integrated view of the skin microbiome,” Nature, vol. 514, no. 7520, pp. 44–45, Oct. 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. Lane and W. Martin, “The energetics of genome complexity,” Nature, vol. 467, no. 7318, pp. 929–934, Oct. 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. M. Wilson, J. C. Watson, and G. A. Lichtwark, “Biomechanics: A catapult action for rapid limb protraction,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6918, pp. 35–36, Jan. 2003.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.-G. Chen, F. S. Willard, J. Huang, et al., “A seven-transmembrane RGS protein that modulates plant cell proliferation,” Science, vol. 301, no. 5640, pp. 1728–1731, Sep. 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. J. Gladon, W. R. Graves, and J. M. Kelly, Getting Published in the Life Sciences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
M. Niederberger, Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Organic Solvents: Synthesis, Formation, Assembly and Application. London: Springer, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Rauchecker, E. Yasasin, and G. Schryen, “A Decision Support System for IT Security Incident Management,” in Trust, Privacy, and Security in Digital Business: 11th International Conference, TrustBus 2014, Munich, Germany, September 2-3, 2014. Proceedings, C. Eckert, S. K. Katsikas, and G. Pernul, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp. 36–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

Blog post
T. Hale, “This Is What The Ancient Greek ‘Griffin Warrior’ Looked Like,” IFLScience, 18-Oct-2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “AIDS Education: Public School Programs Require More Student Information and Teacher Training,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, HRD-90-103, May 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N. L. Alai, “Development of a Sport-Specific Curriculum Addressing Selfefficacy to Optimize Carbohydrate and Calorie Intake Among Male and Female High School Cross-Country Runners,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Johnson, “From Iraq to Oregon, a Global Lotto Jackpot,” New York Times, p. A15, 13-Dec-2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEvidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
AbbreviationEvid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med.
ISSN (print)1741-427X
ISSN (online)1741-4288
ScopeComplementary and alternative medicine

Other styles