How to format your references using the Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. N. Baird, “Comment on ‘Post-wildfire logging hinders regeneration and increases fire risk,’” Science, vol. 313, no. 5787, pp. 615; author reply 615, Aug. 2006.
A journal article with 2 authors
Z. N. Oltvai and A.-L. Barabási, “Systems biology. Life’s complexity pyramid,” Science, vol. 298, no. 5594, pp. 763–764, Oct. 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Nilewski, R. W. Geisser, and E. M. Carreira, “Total synthesis of a chlorosulpholipid cytotoxin associated with seafood poisoning,” Nature, vol. 457, no. 7229, pp. 573–576, Jan. 2009.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. L. Dollar, U. Weber, M. Mlodzik, and S. Y. Sokol, “Regulation of Lethal giant larvae by Dishevelled,” Nature, vol. 437, no. 7063, pp. 1376–1380, Oct. 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
German Geotechnical Society, Recommendations for Design and Analysis of Earth Structures using Geosynthetic Reinforcements - EBGEO. Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, 2012.
An edited book
A. Van Deemen and A. Rusinowska, Eds., Collective Decision Making: Views from Social Choice and Game Theory, vol. 43. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
J. A. Machuca, “Challenges for Anthropological Research on Intangible Cultural Heritage,” in Anthropological Perspectives on Intangible Cultural Heritage, L. Arizpe and C. Amescua, Eds. Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing, 2013, pp. 57–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Obese Three-Year-Old Diagnosed With Youngest Known Case Of Type 2 Diabetes,” IFLScience, 17-Sep-2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Head Start: Information on Federal Funds Unspent by Program Grantees,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, HEHS-96-64, Dec. 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Mavromati, “One Foot In,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Whiteside, “Same High Ideals, All New Challenges,” New York Times, p. B10, 25-Mar-2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEvidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
AbbreviationEvid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med.
ISSN (print)1741-427X
ISSN (online)1741-4288
ScopeComplementary and alternative medicine

Other styles