How to format your references using the Chinese Neurosurgical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chinese Neurosurgical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Sternberg PW. Developmental biology. A pattern of precision. Science. 2004;303:637–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Stevens B, Bony S. Climate change. What are climate models missing? Science. 2013;340:1053–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Villegas P, Moretti P, Muñoz MA. Frustrated hierarchical synchronization and emergent complexity in the human connectome network. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5990.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Fung E, Wong WW, Suen JK, Bulter T, Lee S-G, Liao JC. A synthetic gene-metabolic oscillator. Nature. 2005;435:118–22.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chang CM. Service Systems Management and Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Xenakis C, Wolthusen S, editors. Critical Information Infrastructures Security: 5th International Workshop, CRITIS 2010, Athens, Greece, September 23-24, 2010. Revised Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Timmis J, Andrews P, Owens N, Clark E. Immune Systems and Computation: An Interdisciplinary Adventure. In: Calude CS, Costa JF, Freund R, Oswald M, Rozenberg G, editors. Unconventional Computing: 7th International Conference, UC 2008 Vienna, Austria, August 25-28, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 8–18.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chinese Neurosurgical Journal.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. How Earth’s Atmosphere Once Looked Like Saturn’s Moon Titan. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Improving the Collection of Debts Owed the Government. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981 Dec. Report No.: 117014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Chung J. Quasi-one-dimensional modeling of an adiabatic-compression preheated Ludwieg tube [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Leland J. Life Among the Boldface Names. New York Times. 2017 Jul 28;MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChinese Neurosurgical Journal
AbbreviationChin. Neurosurg. J.
ISSN (online)2057-4967
Scope

Other styles