How to format your references using the Chinese Neurosurgical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chinese Neurosurgical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bowen GJ. Ocean science. A faster water cycle. Science. 2011;332:430–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hudson ZM, Manners I. Chemistry. Assembly and disassembly of ferrocene-based nanotubes. Science. 2014;344:482–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Nederbragt AJ, van Loon AE, Dictus WJAG. Evolutionary biology: hedgehog crosses the snail’s midline. Nature. 2002;417:811–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bahatyrova S, Frese RN, Siebert CA, Olsen JD, Van Der Werf KO, Van Grondelle R, et al. The native architecture of a photosynthetic membrane. Nature. 2004;430:1058–62.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. McLean D. Understanding Aerodynamics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Shaw R, editor. Disaster Recovery: Used or Misused Development Opportunity. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sagar M, Robertson P, Bullivant D, Efimov O, Jawed K, Kalarot R, et al. BL: A Visual Computing Framework for Interactive Neural System Models of Embodied Cognition and Face to Face Social Learning. In: Calude CS, Dinneen MJ, editors. Unconventional Computation and Natural Computation: 14th International Conference, UCNC 2015, Auckland, New Zealand, August 30 -- September 3, 2015, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 71–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chinese Neurosurgical Journal.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Genome Sequencing Mountain Gorillas Reveals The Genetic Impact Of Inbreeding. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. The NASA Fiscal Year 1985 Budget Requests That Support DOD Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984 May. Report No.: NSIAD-84-120.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Serrano M. Bilingual Sentiment Analysis of Spanglish Tweets [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Goldstein M, Protess B. Outline Fails to Mention Loophole for the Very Rich. New York Times. 2017 Apr 27;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChinese Neurosurgical Journal
AbbreviationChin. Neurosurg. J.
ISSN (online)2057-4967

Other styles