How to format your references using the Chinese Neurosurgical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chinese Neurosurgical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wildfeuer C. Physics. Managing multistate quantum entanglement. Science. 2010;328:835–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Mochida S, Hunt T. Calcineurin is required to release Xenopus egg extracts from meiotic M phase. Nature. 2007;449:336–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Fan Y, Yu D, Yao Y-G. Tree shrew database (TreeshrewDB): a genomic knowledge base for the Chinese tree shrew. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7145.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Taipale J, Chen JK, Cooper MK, Wang B, Mann RK, Milenkovic L, et al. Effects of oncogenic mutations in Smoothened and Patched can be reversed by cyclopamine. Nature. 2000;406:1005–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Pérez Fontán F, Mariño Espiñeira P. Modeling the Wireless Propagation Channel. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Papadrakakis M, Fragiadakis M, Plevris V, editors. Computational Methods in Earthquake Engineering: Volume 2. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Encheva S. On Indiscernibility in Assessments. In: Kim T-H, Ma J, Fang W-C, Park B, Kang B-H, Ślęzak D, editors. U- and E-Service, Science and Technology: International Conference UNESST 2010, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2010, Jeju Island, Korea, December 13-15, 2010 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 39–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chinese Neurosurgical Journal.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. 7 Deep Sea Dwellers Who Hardly Look Like Animals At All [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/7-deep-sea-dwellers-who-hardly-look-animals-all/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highway Trust Fund: Strategies for Safeguarding Highway Financing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Sep. Report No.: RCED-92-245.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Dobson EC. Elizabeth C. Dobson Consulting and Design: A business plan for aging-in-place resources [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. For Hughes, Gold Medal Never Trumped Family Life. New York Times. 2010 Feb 10;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChinese Neurosurgical Journal
AbbreviationChin. Neurosurg. J.
ISSN (online)2057-4967
Scope

Other styles