How to format your references using the Chinese Neurosurgical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chinese Neurosurgical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Claeys M. Comment on “Unexpected epoxide formation in the gas-phase photooxidation of isoprene.” Science. 2010;327:644; author reply 644.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Miltat J, Thiaville A. Ferromagnetism. Vortex cores--smaller than small. Science. 2002;298:555.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Stairs IH, Lyne AG, Shemar SL. Evidence for free precession in a pulsar. Nature. 2000;406:484–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Garcia V, Bibes M, Bocher L, Valencia S, Kronast F, Crassous A, et al. Ferroelectric control of spin polarization. Science. 2010;327:1106–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Barron EN. Game Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Shi Y. Optimization Based Data Mining: Theory and Applications. Tian Y, Kou G, Peng Y, Li J, editors. London: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lang JE, Cleveland RH, Palm K, Mardis N, Lee EY, Khatwa U. Congenital and Miscellaneous Abnormalities. In: Cleveland RH, editor. Imaging in Pediatric Pulmonology. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012. p. 39–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chinese Neurosurgical Journal.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Mutilated Toucan Receives 3D-Printed Beak [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Statutory Copyright Licensing: Implications of a Phaseout on Access to Television Programming and Consumer Prices Are Unclear. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Nov. Report No.: GAO-12-75.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Shaw RM. The influence of organizational culture on employee attitudes towards information security policy [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Mueller B, Baker AL. A Grim Measure of Equality for Women in Blue. New York Times. 2017 Jul 11;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChinese Neurosurgical Journal
AbbreviationChin. Neurosurg. J.
ISSN (online)2057-4967

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