How to format your references using the Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
El-Azab, A.: Materials science. The statistical mechanics of strain-hardened metals. Science. 320, 1729–1730 (2008)
A journal article with 2 authors
Racki, G., Koeberl, C.: Comment on “Impact ejecta layer from the mid-Devonian: possible connection to global mass extinctions.” Science. 303, 471; author reply 471 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Acevedo, A., Brodsky, L., Andino, R.: Mutational and fitness landscapes of an RNA virus revealed through population sequencing. Nature. 505, 686–690 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chang, C., Holtzman, D.A., Chau, S., Chickering, T., Woolf, E.A., Holmgren, L.M., Bodorova, J., Gearing, D.P., Holmes, W.E., Brivanlou, A.H.: Twisted gastrulation can function as a BMP antagonist. Nature. 410, 483–487 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rachev, S.T., Kim, Y.S., Bianchi, M.L., Fabozzi, F.J.: Financial Models with Lévy Processes and Volatility Clustering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2011)
An edited book
Holmberg, K., Adgar, A., Arnaiz, A., Jantunen, E., Mascolo, J., Mekid, S. eds: E-maintenance. Springer, London (2010)
A chapter in an edited book
Maher, J.J.: Pathogenesis of NAFLD and NASH. In: Chalasani, N. and Szabo, G. (eds.) Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Bench to Bedside. pp. 71–101. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Prehistoric Kangaroos Were Hop-Less, Walking Giants,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Student Loans: Characteristics of Defaulted Borrowers in the Stafford Student Loan Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1991)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mathes, M.D.: Exploring Factors That Enabled Financial Advisors and Their Firms to Improve Professional Performance After 2008, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dewan, S.: Mostly White Forces in Mostly Black Towns: Police Struggle for Racial Diversity, (2014)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics
AbbreviationTheor. Comput. Fluid Dyn.
ISSN (print)0935-4964
ISSN (online)1432-2250
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
General Engineering
Computational Mechanics
Condensed Matter Physics

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