How to format your references using the Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alvarez, M.: Time for a change. Nature. 445, 682 (2007)
A journal article with 2 authors
Pyenson, N.D., Pyenson, L.: Treating medieval manuscripts as fossils. Science. 309, 698–701; author reply 698-701 (2005)
A journal article with 3 authors
Miller, P.M., Gavrilets, S., Rice, W.R.: Sexual conflict via maternal-effect genes in ZW species. Science. 312, 73 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Beebe, D.J., Moore, J.S., Bauer, J.M., Yu, Q., Liu, R.H., Devadoss, C., Jo, B.H.: Functional hydrogel structures for autonomous flow control inside microfluidic channels. Nature. 404, 588–590 (2000)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pease, G.: Optimize Your Greatest Asset-Your People. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2015)
An edited book
Malone, M.L., Capezuti, E.A., Palmer, R.M. eds: Geriatrics Models of Care: Bringing “Best Practice” to an Aging America. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Knobloch, E.: Analyticité, équipollence et théorie des courbes chez Leibniz. In: Goethe, N.B., Beeley, P., and Rabouin, D. (eds.) G.W. Leibniz, Interrelations between Mathematics and Philosophy. pp. 89–110. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Investing in the Very Young. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1988)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McKelvey, D.M.: Relationships between attitudes of school-based administrators and inclusion practices of students with autism/Asperger’s syndrome, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B.: Film Series, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics
AbbreviationTheor. Comput. Fluid Dyn.
ISSN (print)0935-4964
ISSN (online)1432-2250
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
General Engineering
Computational Mechanics
Condensed Matter Physics

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