How to format your references using the Crop Protection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Crop Protection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Neill, L.A.J., 2013. Immunology. Sensing the dark side of DNA. Science 339, 763–764.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trenberth, K.E., Fasullo, J.T., 2010. Climate change. Tracking Earth’s energy. Science 328, 316–317.
A journal article with 3 authors
Palikaras, K., Lionaki, E., Tavernarakis, N., 2015. Coordination of mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis during ageing in C. elegans. Nature 521, 525–528.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kang, J., Mathew, V., Gim, J., Kim, S., Song, J., Im, W.B., Han, J., Lee, J.Y., Kim, J., 2014. Pyro-synthesis of a high rate nano-Li3V2(PO4)3/C cathode with mixed morphology for advanced Li-ion batteries. Sci. Rep. 4, 4047.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scheinfeld, R., 2009. Busting Loose from the Business Game. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Avison, D., Kasper, G.M., Pernici, B., Ramos, I., Roode, D. (Eds.), 2008. Advances in Information Systems Research, Education and Practice: IFIP 20th World Computer Congress, TC 8, Information Systems, September 7-10, 2008, Milano, Italy, IFIP – The International Federation for Information Processing. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Raymond-Yakoubian, J., 2016. Conceptual and Institutional Frameworks for Protected Areas, and the Status of Indigenous Involvement: Considerations for the Bering Strait Region of Alaska, in: Herrmann, T.M., Martin, T. (Eds.), Indigenous Peoples’ Governance of Land and Protected Territories in the Arctic. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 83–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Crop Protection.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. What Is Freshers’ Flu And What Can You Do About It? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. Battlefield Automation: Status of the Army Command and Control System Program (No. NSIAD-86-184FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Woods, B.A., 2006. The Perceived Efficacy of an Empowerment Model of Youth Development among Vermont Educational Leaders (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2017. In Mets’ Lost Season, Collins Defends His Decisions. New York Times D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Neill, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (O’Neill, 2013; Trenberth and Fasullo, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trenberth and Fasullo, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Kang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCrop Protection
AbbreviationCrop Prot.
ISSN (print)0261-2194
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science

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