How to format your references using the Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S.T. Jackson, History of science. Alexander von Humboldt and the general physics of the Earth, Science. 324 (2009) 596–597.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.A. Nowak, K. Sigmund, Evolutionary dynamics of biological games, Science. 303 (2004) 793–799.
A journal article with 3 authors
Z.M. Hafed, L. Goffart, R.J. Krauzlis, A neural mechanism for microsaccade generation in the primate superior colliculus, Science. 323 (2009) 940–943.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L.M. Wakim, J. Waithman, N. van Rooijen, W.R. Heath, F.R. Carbone, Dendritic cell-induced memory T cell activation in nonlymphoid tissues, Science. 319 (2008) 198–202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A.B. Schmidt, Financial Markets and Trading, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
I. Litvan, ed., Atypical Parkinsonian Disorders: Clinical and Research Aspects, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Peña, C. Castrodeza, P. Lara, Environmental Criteria in Pig Diet Formulation with Multi-Objective Fractional Programming, in: A. Weintraub, C. Romero, T. Bjørndal, R. Epstein, J. Miranda (Eds.), Handbook Of Operations Research In Natural Resources, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2007: pp. 53–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, From Tiger To Free-Range Parents – What Research Says About Pros And Cons Of Popular Parenting Styles, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Department of Education Uncertain About Effectiveness of Its Special Services Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.J. Mete, Can STEM initiatives be social justice oriented: An analysis of urban school reform via smaller learning communities, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Sisario, Opening Challenge for Prince Museum, New York Times. (2016) C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics
AbbreviationElectron. Notes Discrete Math.
ISSN (print)1571-0653
ScopeApplied Mathematics
Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics

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