How to format your references using the Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Scholze, Earth network, Nature. 447 (2007) 228.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Hoeller, I. Dikic, Targeting the ubiquitin system in cancer therapy, Nature. 458 (2009) 438–444.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Muchnik, S. Aral, S.J. Taylor, Social influence bias: a randomized experiment, Science. 341 (2013) 647–651.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Brackhage, J.-H. Huang, J. Schaller, E.J. Elzinga, E.G. Dudel, Readily available phosphorous and nitrogen counteract for arsenic uptake and distribution in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4944.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.A. Hites, J.D. Raff, Elements of Environmental Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
K. Kinder-Kurlanda, C. Ehrwein Nihan, eds., Ubiquitous Computing in the Workplace: What Ethical Issues? An Interdisciplinary Perspective, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Rivkin, K.-H. Schmidt, Beneficial Effects of Servant Leadership on Short- and Long-Term Indicators of Employees’ Psychological Health, in: B. Deml, P. Stock, R. Bruder, C.M. Schlick (Eds.), Advances in Ergonomic Design of Systems, Products and Processes: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of GfA 2015, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2016: pp. 71–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics.

Blog post
J. Fang, How Eyespots Showed Up On Butterfly Wings, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Evaluation of NASA Comments on Consolidated Space Operations Center, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.K. Geiselman, Diet and reproduction of sympatric nectar-feeding bat species (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in French Guiana, Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.R. Kelly, How the Carolinas Fixed Their Blurred Lines, New York Times. (2014) SR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics
AbbreviationElectron. Notes Discrete Math.
ISSN (print)1571-0653
ScopeApplied Mathematics
Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics

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